Semester 1 Timeline

  • Jamestown

    The first permanent English settlement in North America, the odds of the colony being successful were low however Jamestown survived becoming the first thriving English colony in North America. They were the first to learn what worked and what didn’t. It provided an example that other colonies followed.
  • The Enlightenment Movement

    The Enlightenment Movement
    A movement that rejected traditional ways of life and looked for a more rational and scientific way to explain the world we live in. It had an emphasis on sciences and reason to explain things. This encouraged people to question what they previously thought and believed was true. People started to question the government and ask questions like, who had the right to rule? Where did that right come from and what responsibilities did it come with? This was the foundation of more modern ideas.
  • End of Salutary Neglect

    End of Salutary Neglect
    As a result of the debt accumulated by the French and Indian War, England ended the policy of Salutary Neglect. To pay off the debt England needed to make the colonies more profitable. This led to the Sugar Act, which lowered taxes on molasses and sugar. The quartering act said American colonists must provide quarters to British soldiers. And The Stamp Act stated that any legal document needed a tax. This created more tension among colonists which eventually led to the American Revolution.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    A confrontation between 9 British Soldiers and some townspeople where 5 colonists were killed. People labeled the incident as a massacre and they used it to rally sentiment against British rule.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was caused by the Tea Act passed by the British Government which allowed the British India Company to trade tea from China without paying taxes in American Colonies. Angry about this a group of Colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians took control of three British Ships and poured the tea into the ocean
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    In response to the Coercive Acts, representatives from the colonies got together and created the First Continental Congress they wanted to agree on a response to British Actions and to organize the colonies' rights defense operations. They advocated boycotting British Goods until the Coercive Acts were overturned.
  • Shot heard around the World

    Shot heard around the World
    The first shot fired, that started the battle of Lexington and Concord, which began the American Revolutionary War. No one knows however which side was the one who fired it.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The colonies sent delegates to the first continental congress, where the olive branch petition was sent to the King as a last resort to prevent formal war from being declared. Delegates agreed that they would be willing to remain part of the British Empire as long as concessions were made for representatives. The King rejects the petition and declares the Colonies to be in open rebellion. This strengthened patriots in their fight for independence.
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    This act explicitly reaffirmed the Parliament’s full power and authority to make laws and statutes to bind the colonies and people of America. The British wanted to show the colonies that they were able to tax them, if they wanted, and prove that they were stronger than the colonies. This further angered the colonists.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Written by Thomas Paine, “Common sense” was considered a brilliant piece of propaganda, it laid out a passionate case for independence, in a language that common people were able to understand, later Paine also wrote “American Crisis” which significantly boosted the continental army's morale.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    After the start of the Revolution in 1775, the colonists faced many defeats.The British had a better army than the colonies did.The Battle of Saratoga represented a turning point in the revolution. Burgoyne was quickly surrounded and along with his whole army. This battle boosted the morale of the continental army and convinced France to help the colonies.This led to the victory of the Colonies in the American Revolution.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Many ex-soldiers were in debt from being away fighting the war. They were sent to prison, and some lost their farms. Angry about this they start to rebel. They take on courthouses from West to East. As a result, wealthy Bostonians feel threatened. But the Federal government is weak so there is no way to stop the rebellion. This was under the first official document The Articles of Confederation created in 1777. Shays's rebellion showed just how weak the Articles of Confederation really were.
  • Creation of the Constitution

    Creation of the Constitution
    After the failure of the articles of Confederation, delegates decided to meet to revise it, in what is now known today as the Constitutional Convention, however, they ended up writing a whole new one. This new constitution created a strong enough government to deal in a national level. This was proven successful in the Whiskey Rebellion where farmers refused to pay taxes until the American army had to enforce it. This upheld the power of the New Federal government
  • Election of Washington

    Election of Washington
    George Washington was the first President of the United States, therefore he established many precedents that shaped the office’s power and roles. Like establishing the Presidential Cabinet, ceremonial events, as well as the precedent of only a 2-term presidency. By being the first he set an example for every U.S. president after him.
  • Hamilton's financial plan

    Hamilton's financial plan
    Hamilton believes the Federal government should be stronger than the state. His plan included paying off war debt, and raising the federal government’s revenues through tariffs and taxes which would encourage the growth of American industry and raise money for the federal government. He also created a National Bank. He argued that the bank would provide stability to the economy. This was important as it was a way to standardize American money and a way to deal with the debt from the War.
  • Neutrality

    Even though the United States promised France its support since they helped America in the American Revolution. In the French Revolution (1789-1793) Washington and his members agreed that the United States would remain neutral. They believed the nation was too young and their military was small. They thought it would be too risky to take a side.
  • Creation of the Cotton Gin

    Creation of the Cotton Gin
    The creation of the cotton gin revolutionized the production of cotton, it sped up the production by removing the seeds from the cotton. This made cotton very profitable, as a result, it encouraged westward migration to the south and greatly increased slavery.
  • Pinckey's Treaty

    Pinckey's Treaty
    Spain gave the Americans the right to freely travel on the Mississippi River, and use the port of New Orleans. This solved disputes between the two countries. And was an important diplomatic success for the United States
  • Naturalization, Alien and Sedition Acts

    Naturalization, Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien Act allowed the President to deport any alien considered dangerous. The Sedation act made it illegal for newspapers to print any material that was insulting or malicious to the president or congress. And the naturalization act lengthened the residency requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. These were some controversial acts that really angered people.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    Also known as the “Revolution of 1800” Thomas Jefferson (Republican) won against his opponent John Adams (Federalist) by an electoral vote of seventy-three to sixty-five. This signified the end of the Federalist power. And it was the first time in the history of the world that power shifted in a peaceful way.
  • Marbury vs madison

    Marbury vs madison
    James Madison refuses to grant Marbury the position he was appointed to by Thomas Jefferson before leaving office. Marbury sues however the Supreme court sides with Madison and refuses to grant Marbury the position because they found a part of the judiciary act unconstitutional. The supreme court then claims the right of Judicial Review, the right to declare laws unconstitutional and strike them down.
  • Louisiana purchase

    Louisiana purchase
    The U.S. purchased 828,000 square miles of land for $4 cents an acre. This was significant as it doubled the size of the country, expanded the nation westward, and secured New Orleans and the Mississippi River. After acquiring this New territory Jefferson wanted to explore it, so he commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition to begin trading relationships with Native Americans, and find a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    An act Jefferson pursued to protect American Interests, The Embargo Act prohibited American ships from leaving their home ports for foreign destinations until Britain and France stopped restricting U.S. trade. This act was not very popular among merchants and traders. It increased tensions between America and Britain, and weakened the entire economy, it did, however, encourage the growth of domestic manufacturing.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    After the start of the war in 1812, the Treaty of Ghent officially ended the war between the united states and the United Kindom. Both countries agreed that the conquered territory was to be returned.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    After the results of the election of 1824, the presidency is between Adams and Jackson. It was up to the house to decide. Clay still holds a big influence in the House, and after a secret meeting between Adams and Clay, the House elects Adams as president. 3 days later Adams appoints Clay to be Secretary of State. Jackson’s supporters claimed this was a corrupt bargain.
  • Tariff of abominations

    Tariff of abominations
    The Tariff of Abominations made foreign goods more expensive, the purpose was to protect northern and western agricultural products from competition with other foreign goods. However, the southerners resented the tariff because it cost them about $100 million a year, their economy suffered greatly because of it while it only benefited the North
  • Transcendentalism movement

    Transcendentalism movement
    A movement that argued people needed to shake off inherited customs and institutions and discover their “original relation with nature”. Related to romanticism, individualism, progressive ideas, and spirituality over organized religion. Founding members included Ralph Waldo Emerson.
  • Force Bill

    Force Bill
    Bill that gave President Andrew Jackson, the ability to use military force to compel South Carolina to follow the law. Meanwhile, Henry Clay proposed another tariff that would reduce tariffs significantly over the next ten years.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Part of Andrew Jackson’s removal policy. Forced Indians to march 1,200 miles to present-day Oklahoma. This journey is called the Trail of tears because of the harsh horrible conditions they had to endure, from starvation to disease, to death.
  • Miracle Plow

    Miracle Plow
    Miracle Plow solved the problem of farming in buffalo grass, it was made of steel, it was sharper and more durable. This along with the Mccormick Reaper will transform the planes into a productive wheat production area with the potential to feed the entire nation, even the entire world.
  • Seneca Falls

    Seneca Falls
    Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, a gathering of women’s rights activists in Seneca Falls, New York. Seventy women and thirty men attended. This was the first time this had happened, during the convention Elizabeth drafted The Declaration of Sentiments modeled on the Declaration of Independence. Which argued for women’s rights and suffrage.
  • Texas enters the U.S

    Texas enters the U.S
    -The U.S. said it would send military help to Texas against Mexico if Texas agreed to enter the Union as a state. Texas entered the United States as a slave state, this was controversial as it would give more numbers in The House of Representatives and in the Senate to the pro-slavery side. This threatened the balance between free states and slave states.
  • Compromise of 1850

     Compromise of 1850
    Proposed by Henry Clay, this compromise had several parts, it stated that California would enter the Union as a free state, and the slave trade would be Abolished in Washington DC. Strict fugitive laws would be enacted nationwide. And territories applying for statehood could decide whether to be slave or free. This was a compromise that benefited both sides and therefore it saved the Nation.
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

     Pottawatomie Massacre
    Seeking revenge for what happened in the Town of Lawrence, John Brown along with some of his followers shows up in Kansas and hacks several pro-slavery families to death. This marked the beginning of Bleeding Kansas
  • Dred Scott V. Sandford

    Dred Scott V. Sandford
    Dred Scott was a slave who moved to a free state, his case was if slavery was illegal where he moved then he couldn't be a slave there because that would violate the law. The supreme court disagrees with that and sides with the owner. The decision said slaves were not citizens and could not expect federal protection. Congress could not ban slavery even in free states. This especially angered abolitionists and increasingly grew tensions between both sides eventually leading to the Civil War.
  • Lincoln Election

    Lincoln Election
    Lincoln becomes very popular in the Republican party, after losing a lot to Stephen Douglas. Lincoln’s name was even missing from some ballots in slave states however he still managed to win, mostly due because the Democratic Party had 2 candidates. This allowed Lincon to get more electoral votes.
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    Anaconda Plan was a Civil War strategy for the North Proposed by Union General Winfield Scott. The purpose of this plan was to entrap and capture the South, attack their economy by keeping them from selling cotton, and split confederate states. To do this the North would use its navy to close the ports, this would cut off external resources, and secure the Mississippi river.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Slavery was abolished only in the South, the only places that slavery could be legal is in states and territories that are part of the Union. This was an incentive Lincon used to convince the confederate states to come back into the Union. He wanted to unify the Union.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    The battle of Vicksburg was a decisive victory for the Union. Led by Ulysses Grant. The Confederacy had nearly 30,000 casualties, 3,300 killed. This victory divided the South and got complete control over the Mississippi River.
  • Lincoln's 10% plan

    Lincoln's 10% plan
    After the Civil War ended reconstruction started. Lincoln’s plan included the following, pardons would be given to any confederate leader who swore an oath to the Union, constitution, and agreed to emancipation. Any state would be readmitted once at least 10% of its voters had sworn loyalty oaths. States had to form new state constitutions that outlawed slavery. Radicals felt that Lincon’s plan was too lenient. Lincon’s purpose was just to bring the Union back together.
  • Freedman’s bureau

    Freedman’s bureau
    Was created to help newly freed blacks transition to a life of freedom by starting schools, negotiating labor contracts, securing loans, helping find and purchase land, and providing legal aid. This was really helpful to African Americans and a step in the right direction.
  • Sharecropping

    After the end of the Civil War Southern land, economy, and transportation was destroyed. Recovering meant finding a new labor system to replace slavery. Sharecropping solved that problem. Black farmers worked on white planter’s land but had to pay ¼ or ½ of their crops
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    This act gave citizenship to African Americans and offered some protection against black codes. This also made it illegal to deny any person the right to citizenship. This was meant to protect African Americans and their rights.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    14th Amendment stated that all people born in the United States were full citizens, and all people that were naturalized were full citizens. All U.S states were required to fully protect all U.S citizens through laws and legal processes. Former Confederate leaders could no longer hold state or federal offices, and if a state denied people their voting rights they would lose representation in Congress.
  • Johnson's impeachment

    Johnson's impeachment
    Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act which stated that the President could not remove some military officials without congressional approval, however, he removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without permission, and therefore he was impeached. The house impeached him but the Senate fell 1 vote short, and Johnson became officially powerless. Johnson was the first president to ever face impeachment proceedings.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    Election of 1868
    Radical republicans remained in control but lost the supermajority, Andrew Jackson was so unpopular he lost the election to Ulysses S. Grant. This was the first election after the end of the Civil war, and the first election where African Americans were allowed to vote
  • 15th amendment

    15th amendment
    The 15th amendment prohibited any state from denying any citizen the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This Amendment was very unpopular in the North and as a result, the democratic party won more northern support.
  • Election Crisis of 1876

    Election Crisis of 1876
    The election between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. It seemed as if 100% of the South voted for Tilden, the North questioned this. A recount was initiated in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. After the recount, all 3 states went to Hayes, The South was outraged, and the constitution did not account for this type of crisis. An election commission was created, and Hayes was named President. And military oversight in the South was ended.
  • Urbanization

    With a large number of immigrants entering the country in the large east coast cities, these cities naturally began to grow up creating more urbanization. Skyscrapers began to appear along with water, sewage, and power. This along with another agricultural revolution-supporting the cities-, and political machines, was urbanization.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Supreme court ruled in a 7-1 vote that “separate but equal” accommodations on railroad cars confronted the 14th amendment guarantee of equal protection. That decision was used to justify segregating all public facilities, including schools.
  • Theodore Roosevelt becomes President

    Theodore Roosevelt becomes President
    The Republican Party made Roosevelt the Vice President of Mackinley to use Roosevelt's popularity to ensure Mackinley a 2nd term but also to be able to control him, the Republican party thought Roosevelt was trouble. Following the assassination of William Mckinley, Theodore Roosevelt was sworn into office as the New President of the United States.
  • Pure food and Drug Act

    Pure food and Drug Act
    Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce. It led to the creation of a foundation for the nation's first consumer protection agency, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These actions still heavily influence us and the food we eat today, and have led the groundwork for many food and drug protections still in use.
  • Triangle of Fire

    Triangle of Fire
    Fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, despite fire safety laws, employers were locked emergency doors to prevent theft. 146 people mostly young immigrant women died trapped in the flames. This tragic accident led to new state laws that increased workplace safety and regulated working hours for women and children.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The Great Migration was a large demographic movement of African Americans from the Southern U.S.A. to the north and west around WWI. This not only allowed those African Americans not only escape the Jim Crow Laws of the South but also gave them opportunities in factories and other work with many white men being drafted into the war
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    Jim Crow laws legalized segregation in transportation, accommodations, schools, courts, etc., and restricted black civil rights. The North and the federal government did little to nothing to prevent it.
  • Taft's Dollar Diplomacy

    Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
    Gave money & guaranteed loans to foreign countries in the hopes that it would strengthen economic ties, and earn the U.S. preferential treatment in trade negotiations. This allowed the U.S. to gain financially from countries but also restrained other foreign countries from reaping any sort of financial gain.
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    The U.S. intercepts the Zimerman Telegram, in which Germany promises to give Mexico back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in exchange for Mexico attacking the U.S. This along with Germany Germany declaring unrestricted submarine warfare pushed the U.S. away from isolationism and towards War.
  • Selective Services Act

    Selective Services Act
    America’s army was small and not very prepared. This act was passed by President Wilson and authorized the Federal government to expand the military temporarily. America mobilized 4.5 million troops. This act eventually required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for military service.
  • Prohibition

    The 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture, sale, distribution, or importation of in alcohol nationwide. This was a win for temperance groups mainly women, as they believed alcohol was the root of all evil. The unintended consequences of this were the rise of organized crime, speakeasies, and bootleggers.
  • Treaty of Versilles

    Treaty of Versilles
    European Powers did not like Wilson’s 14 points because it didn’t punish Germany, however, the treaty of Versailles greatly limited Germany’s military, forced them to assume fault for the war, and made them pay 33 billion in War reparations. This resulted in a period of great economic depression in Germany and eventually the rise of Hitler.
  • Roaring 20's

    Roaring 20's
    The Roaring 20's are highlighted by the good economy, new women, stocks and credit, jazz and black music, prohibition, and changing society. Women out and enjoying the nightlife and flapper life was normal if not glorified. This era is highlighted by city vs country as half of America was now in a city and the two very different lifestyles. Fast, complicated, immoral, vs simple, slow, peaceful.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

    Sacco and Vanzetti
    After WWI animosity toward immigrants and those with dangerous political positions was heightened. Sacco & Vanzetti, known as anarchists, and socialists were charged with the murder of a store owner during a robbery. There was no evidence against them however they were found guilty and sentenced to death. This sparked worldwide protests against the repression of immigrants and radical political beliefs.
  • Harlem renaissance

    Harlem renaissance
    Blacks in the North established black communities. A large movement in the African American movement of art, literature, music, and civil rights. There was a flourishing of black artistic expression. This was a strong movement of black pride and self-recognition. There are many writers still being read from this period.
  • Consumer Credit

    Consumer Credit
    New forms of borrowing money and paying it later, like auto loans and installment plans. This was available to most Americans and became very popular. This made it possible to attain a modern lifestyle for countless Americans, however, the increasing debt just worsened the crash that led to the Great Depression.
  • Dusbowl

    Economic and environmental disaster was caused by overproduction in a single land, soil erosion, drought, and strong winds. Crops turned into dust, and no food was able to be produced. Homes were buried. Food was scarce and many families were forced to abandon their farms and move. This was the #1 ecological disaster of the 20th century. Eventually solved with the help of the CCC as well as an industry-wide change in farming practices.
  • Depression (Hoover)

    Depression (Hoover)
    In the beginning of the depression president Herbert Hoover was tasked with helping the nation. He opposed direct federal aid and provided help to banks hoping America could ride it out. This led to his unpopularity, view as a do nothing, and eventually FDR's election. Under Hoover, WWI veterans asked for a bonus, promised before enlisting, several years early as the depression was setting in. They marched to Washington and camped outside the White House until forcefully removed.
  • Bonus Army March

    Bonus Army March
    WWI veterans were promised a bonus for their service but they weren’t due to receive it until 1945, however, because of the financial crisis thousands of them marched in Washington, however, their request was denied. President Hoover ordered to evict them, many got hurt. This shows the panic and hysteria people were experiencing during the depression.
  • FDR's New Deal

    FDR's New Deal
    Roosevelt promised to address the depression, he focused on relief, recovery, and reform. Aimed at creating new agencies and programs to protect people from economic disasters and provide relief or temporary work. FDR changed the role of the government
  • Banking Act of 1933

    Banking Act of 1933
    As part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's overall plan for addressing the country, the New Deal instated many new programs, the first of which was the Banking Act of 1933, which created the FDIC, the SEC, began regulating the stock market, insured individual deposits, shut every bank down until they regained stability, and only allowed healthy banks to reopen. Despite its unconstitutionality, congress didn't want to fall out of favor since to the people it appeared FDR was working to end hardships.
  • German troops marched into Rhineland

    German troops marched into Rhineland
    Rhineland was a region of Germany that was demilitarized after the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was not allowed to have troops in that region, however by allowing troops to march there Hitle was testing what the consequences would be, and the lack of them encouraged his behavior that eventually led to WWII.
  • Social Security Act of 1935

    Social Security Act of 1935
    A Second New Deal Program, SS was a safety net for all Americans struggling financially. It took a percentage of their paycheck to be taken and saved before withdrawn upon retirement, which encouraged people to retire and freed up jobs for the younger community. Its intent was to supplement, not replace, everyday income, as people had been less keen on retiring fearing they'd lose all their money. It changed the people-government relationship.
  • Court Packing Scandal

    Court Packing Scandal
    The Supreme Court declared 22 different provisions of the New Deal unconstitutional, enraged FDR tried to add 6 pro-new-deal Democrat justices to increase the number from 9 to 15. This would assure that the New Legislation would pass. Despite the Constitution not specifically protecting it, the SC can't be touched by politicians and therefore it wasn’t approved. However, they also never ruled against the New Deal again.
  • HUAC

    The House UnAmerican Activities Committee was formed during the 30s as a result of the mass suspicions of communism- the Red Scare. However, they saw a mass increase in activity during the cold war, as people feared espionage on from the USSR. This particular committee had the power to interview anyone suspected of being a communist, particularly anyone of influence, and continued the same sort of unconstitutionality as would later be seen in McCarthyism Cold War trials
  • The Draft Bill

    The Draft Bill
    On September 16, 1940, the United States instituted the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. This was the first peacetime draft in United States history, and it was in anticipation of entering the second world war. It was signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Japan thought that attacking the U.S. would provide them with an easy win, and a territory with abundant land and resources to rule once they were victorious. This attack drove the United States to war. America mobilized and jump starts its economy for wartime production.
  • Double V Campaign

    Double V Campaign
    Civil rights movement was started by African American veterans and activists at home. Arguing if we send troops abroad to stop tyranny then racism should also be ended here. This was met with mild success but was a seed sown for the civil rights movement.
  • D-Day

    Allied forces launched Operation Overlord and began the fight to liberate north-west Europe from German occupation. Allied forces had nearly 5,400 ships cross the English Channel and 256,000 troops. The Beaches were stormed in the early morning supported by 23,000 airborne troops that had already landed behind enemy lines. D-Day is the largest seaborne invasion in history and was a turning point in WWII. Within 7 days we controlled 80 miles.
  • G.I Bill

    G.I Bill
    Government’s way of saying thank you to soldiers who fought in WWII. This paid for their education whether that was college or trade school, it also gave low interest on home loans and business loans. Not only did this help to employ the 18 1/2 million soldiers who served, but it also gave an opportunity for those soldiers to create a good life. Because of this, an emphasis was placed on higher education, it became an expectation for later generations, and it supports the American Dream.
  • Baby Boom

    Baby Boom
    Soldiers returning from the war were ready to expand their families. Led by the great economic circumstances of the nation, families were encouraged to raise children. This led to the largest generation ever. This also meant more jobs being made to produce more schools, food, clothes doctors, and many others. We still see the impact of this generation today as baby boomers are retiring and boosting demand for healthcare, elder care, retirement homes, and more.
  • Founding of NATO

    Founding of NATO
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), was created for the purpose of international mutual defense. If one of the participating nations was ever under attack, the rest would come to its defense. It was originally signed between ten European countries, Canada, and the United States. Dwight Eisenhower became the first Supreme Commander, and Russia in response called it a direct attack and formed the Warsaw Pact- like NATO, but communist. NATO was made for defense and has never attacked.
  • Jackie Robinson enters the MLB

    Jackie Robinson enters the MLB
    Some believe this was the first event of the Civil Rights Movement, Jackie Robinson entered the MLB as the first black player causing a commotion. The manager who hired him was looking for someone with an even temper who wouldn't react poorly, even in the worst of situations, knowing any slip-up would mean bad press and the end of the movement before it had even really begun. Robinson paved the way for future black athletes and jumpstarted the Civil Rights Movement into its largest actions yet.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Named after its creator, George Marshall, this plan was America's way of assisting all of Europe. It aimed at rebuilding the infrastructure of both friends and enemies and by doing this proved that American capitalism was in the right. Its main policy stated that economic health equaled peace and stability, it helped create currency, expand trade and cooperation, remove restrictions, and increase agricultural production for those countries as a result of American abundance.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    Berlin was split between communist and free. However, unlike West Germany, west Berlin was in deep turmoil and sought outside help as an island of democracy. Through "Operation Vittles", Truman authorized the Berlin Airlift- American planes that would fly over and drop much-needed supplies to West Berlin without ever touching the ground and violating Russia's blockade. Stalin couldn't shoot down the planes or risk the wrath of the US. This was a huge Cold War victory for the U.S
  • Hollywood 10

    Hollywood 10
    Ten important Hollywood writers, producers, directors, and actors were investigated by HUAC. They refused to testify to an anti-communist committee hearing. Hollywood quickly established a “blacklist,” a collection of names of Hollywood personalities suspected of having communist ties. After the televised hearings, the Hollywood 10 were blacklisted and were never able to find jobs in the entertainment industry again.
  • Brown v. Topeka

    Brown v. Topeka
    In the previous ruling of Plessy v Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that education facilities could be separated by race as long as they were equal. However, by the 1950s, it was very apparent that they were not. This new case of Linda Brown was taken up by the NAACP, and represented by Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court Judge. It was also the case that overturned the Plessy v Ferguson ruling, forcing places to desegregate, however, it did not give a date for when to.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parked challenged the Jim Crow laws by refusing to give up her seat to a white male on a bus. She is arrested and as a result, black leaders organize a boycott, 40,000 black participate in the boycott that lasted 382 days, and the bus companies eventually joined in fighting the law in order to end the boycott & regain black customers. This led to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that segregation on public buses is unconstitutional.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
    An act passed under Eisenhower that not only would interconnect major cities throughout America, supporting its automotive industry, as well as commerce and had a military background. The roads could also be used as landing strips and to help evacuate cities in case of attacks or nukes. This greatly improved automotive sales as well as the commerce between cities. However it worked like rivers and railroads, as it took the life out of smaller, not connected towns.
  • Founding of SCLC

    Founding of SCLC
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was created when sixty black ministers and civil rights leaders met in Atlanta, Georgia, to replicate the successful strategy and tactics of the recent bus boycott in Montgomery Alabama. They had direct ties to founder Martin Luther King Jr, which put them at the forefront of the civil rights movement and helped many other organizations and leaders.
  • Russia develops ICBMs

    Russia develops ICBMs
    The U.S.S.R successfully tests Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles(ICBMs) which can launch rockets armed with nuclear weapons. These ICBMs can strike targets 2,200 nautical miles away, making them a viable long-range threat.
    Hysteria strikes the U.S. as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) feels imminent.
  • Ruby Bridges

    Ruby Bridges
    She is the first black student to attend an all-white elementary in the South, she is escorted to and from school by armed soldiers, while community members, parents, and students shout insults, protest, and throw food at her. Ruby's bravery helped pave the way for Civil Rights action in the American South.
  • 16th street baptist church bombing

    16th street baptist church bombing
    The 16th street baptist church in Birmingham, a popular meeting spot for Civil Rights meetings gets bombed. Four black girls are killed this sparked riots in Birmingham, and more than 700 Black children peacefully protested racial segregation as part of the Children's Crusade, beginning a movement that sparked widely-publicized police brutality that shocked the nation and spurred major civil rights advances.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    After the assassination of JFK Lyndon B. Johnson (VP) became the President. He launches a set of domestic policies with the main goals of ending poverty, reducing crime, abolishing inequality, and improving the environment. He calls this “The Great Society” This helped establish greater civil and voting rights, greater environmental protections, and increased aid to public schools.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright

    Gideon v. Wainwright
    Gideon was charged with breaking and entering with the intent to commit a misdemeanor, however, he could not afford an attorney and asked for one to be provided for him, this was denied and with no lawyer to defend him he was found guilty. He took his case to the Supreme Court where they ruled in favor of Gideon, this meant that a state must provide legal counsel to anyone charged with a felony who cannot afford a lawyer.
  • March in Washington

    March in Washington
    The SCLC plans a march and rally in Washington D.C. with support from NAACP, SWCC, and CORE. Over 250,000 people are in attendance, This happened right after the summer of 1963 in Birmingham where King was arrested. This was the culmination of all the protesting, lawsuits, deaths, and segregation in the South. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. Around 250,000 people showed up in support and was a sign of the end in the Conflict.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The legislature signed by Johnson, however, it was drafted by JFK this was to give everyone equality. Stating " prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin". However, this was met with not enough compliance and voting was still very restricted. This also led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

     Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    Two separate attacks on two U.S. Navy destroyers, U.S.S. Maddox and U.S.S. Turner Joy led to Congress passing the Gulf of Tokin Resolution which authorized President Johnson to take any measures he believed were necessary to retaliate and to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia. This provided the justification for further U.S. escalation of the conflict in Vietnam.
  • Environmental protection Agency

    Environmental protection Agency
    As part of Nixon's domestic policies, he created the EPA, which was made to both reinforce old conservation policies and make new ones. In addition to creating the new agency, he also signed the National Environmental Policy Act, which regulated the government's impact on the government this was the first type of policy to do so, as well as the Marine Mammal, Clean Air, and Endangered Species Acts. Nixon helped regulate conservation impacts made particularly by the federal government.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Despite Nixon's successful domestic policies, he is most remembered for the Watergate Scandal. Named after the Watergate Hotel where 5 men broke in'. Later it was revealed that although Nixon didn’t know about the crime beforehand he did help cover it up afterward. Nixon's denial forced his near impeachment, However before they could do it he decided to resign. This made people lose trust in government.
  • The Iranian Hostage Crisis

    The Iranian Hostage Crisis
    In response to America's support of the Shah, Iranians stormed the US embassy in Iran, taking hostages and holding them for 444 days. President Carter orders a rescue mission but it ends up being a disaster, he then becomes afraid of ordering another one. Iran only released them the day Reagan was inaugurated. This hostage crisis proved only the beginning of decades of tension in the Middle East, and it lost Carter another shot at Presidency.
  • Election of 1984

    Election of 1984
    The public was starting to question the old age of Reagan, he was the oldest serving President in history, however, he was able to prove to the public that he was more than capable of running the country with his charm through televised debates with his opponent Madale. Reagan was re-elected winning 42 states, and 525 electoral votes, compared to the 13 his opponent Mondale got. This is the highest number of electoral votes ever won by a non-incumbent presidential candidate.