European states

Reform Reaction and Revolution: The European States 1815-1850

  • Union of Netherlands and Belgium

    Union of Netherlands and Belgium
    The country of Belgium was found to be liberated by the Neterlands after defeating Napolean at Waterloo
  • Germanic Confederation established

    Germanic Confederation established
    At the Congress of Vienna, Germany was gifted 39 states in order to restore the broken holy roman empire which dissolved several weeks later
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    The periods of hunger and common unemployment after the Napoleonic Wars stirred an up-rise for the people of England. This ensued the protest that killed 18 people, they had deaths caused by the Yeomanry.
  • Karlsbad Decrees

    Karlsbad Decrees
    Were the set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation.
  • Revolts in Southern Italy and Sardinia crushed

    Revolts in Southern Italy and Sardinia crushed
    King Charles wanted to unite Italy under the leadership of the Bishop of Rome. The revolt began due to cultural and political beliefs of the people.
  • Louis XVIII

    Louis XVIII
    Louis began re-controlling the empire with political democrat approaches such as constitutional monarchy which had never had begun before.
  • Charles X

    Charles X
    He reigned as the king of Paris but was viewed as a very unpopular figure due to him wanting to rule with old traditional ways that the french had fought to get rid of until 1830
  • Tsar Alexander I

    Tsar Alexander I
    He defeated Napolean in 1812 and later during the second half of his reign he was increasingly paranoid about plots against him; He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. He reigned for 24 years
  • Tsar Nicholas I

    Tsar Nicholas I
    He was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 it was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Russian revolutionaries who led an unsuccessful uprising on Dec. 14 through their martyrdom provided a source of inspiration to succeeding generations of Russian dissidents, these were members of upper classes with military backgrounds.
  • France

    Had just undergone large financial hardships & were finally back on their own feet when the industrial revolution took over France
  • Louis-Philppe

    Louis-Philppe was the new king in France from 1830-1848. He is known for allowing colonist expansion and conservative policies.
  • Belgian Independence

    Belgian Independence
    This was a conflict of the unified state that ultimately led to the sucession of Belgium from the clutches of the Netherlands. This was a battle that lasted from August 25 1830 through August 12 1831
  • Polish Uprising

    Polish Uprising
    This was a Polish rebellion that unsuccessfully tried to overthrow Russian rule in the Congress Kingdom of Poland as well as in the Polish provinces of western Russia and parts of Lithuania, Belorussia, and Ukraine.
  • July Revolution

    July Revolution
    Known as "The Three Glorious Days" this revolution led to the overthrow of Charles X. This occured July 26-29 of 1830 and was led by angry protestors.
  • King Charles Albert of Piedmont

    King Charles Albert of Piedmont
    During the turbulent period of the Risorgimento, the movement for the unification of Italy. His political vacillations make him an enigmatic personality Yet he failed to pardon his accomplices in the plot of 1821 and harshly repressed a conspiracy in 1833. He was fiercely anti-Austrian. He reigned 1831-1849
  • Suppression of Polish revolt

    Suppression of Polish revolt
    The Polish army was merged in that of Russia. Russians were appointed to all posts of any importance, civil and military. The Russian system was introduced into the Polish tribunals. The lifestyle of Polish culture and ways was strictly forbidden (churches, languages, and schools)
  • 1832 Reform Act

    1832 Reform Act
    This Act that was passed in 1832 was the struggle between Parliament and the people of the streets. This allowed more than 18% more of citizens to be able to vote. This allowed more steps for becoming independent.
  • Poor Law

    Poor Law
    This law was passed in order to try and reduce the amount of money that went into taking care of the poor.This law would ensure that the poor people of the town/community/city would have a job in workhouses and be clothed in fed. They would have to work for several hours in return each day.
  • Emperor Ferdinand I

    Emperor Ferdinand I
    He was the ruler of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. He was also President of the German Confederation, King of Croatia, Hungary, and Bohemia. Was viewed as a poor leader to mental issues.
  • Frederick William III of Prussia

    Frederick William III of Prussia
    King of Prussia who watched the defeat of Napolean, had a plan to unify the protestant churches, homengize their liturgy and organization. Was succesful and carried the Church of the Prussian Union for several years.
  • Frederick William IV of Prussia

    Frederick William IV of Prussia
    Reigning for 21 years, he is most noteable for his architecture plans that he instilled into the cities Berlin and Potsdam.
  • Repeal of Corn Laws

    Repeal of Corn Laws
    Prime Minister Peel called for repeal which was strongly frowned upon by the conservative party. He promised to have it repealed in the next three years (1849)
  • Revolution of Germany

    Revolution of Germany
    This was caused by a series of Republican Revolts that began in Sicily and made their way into Germany. They all ended with repression.
  • Francis Joseph I

    Francis Joseph I
    Troubled with Nationalism until the time of his death, created a military campaign against Hungary and re-instated a consitution in 1849. He reigned until 1916.
  • Revolutions in Italy

    Revolutions in Italy
    Were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government.
  • Charles Albert attacks the Austrians

    Charles Albert attacks the Austrians
    By his forces against the Imperial Austrian army in the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849), he was abandoned by Pope Pius IX and Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and was defeated in 1849 at the Battle of Novara, he was then later sent into exile.
  • Abdication of Louis-Phillippe

    Abdication of Louis-Phillippe
    Due to his abuse of economic deteriorating and not helping the French, on February February 26.
  • Revolt in Austrian Empire

    Revolt in Austrian Empire
    This was a revolt due to being a germanic state that the people wanted to be independent and raised a revolution.
  • Frankfurt Assembly

    Frankfurt Assembly
    The Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany.
  • June Days

    June Days
    On the dates of June 23 through June 26 there was a workers revolt in Paris. This was a protest against the closing of National Workshops which were created by the Second Republic.
  • Viennese Rebels Crushed

    The reconquering of Vienna was viewed as a defeat to German Nationalism. Revolted due to conservative views of the political stance.
  • Establishment of the Second Republic

    This was the short four year reign of conservative views held by the new king Louis-Napoleon. A new consititution was formed out of this.
  • The Election of Louis-Napoleon

    The Election of Louis-Napoleon
    This was the first ever presidential election held in France.
  • Defeat of Hungarian with help of Russian Troops

    Defeat of Hungarian with help of Russian Troops
    In the name of the Holy Alliance, 200,000 russian troops came to the aid of Austria in order to defeat Hungary.
  • Austrians reestablish control in Lombardy and Venetia

    Austrians reestablish control in Lombardy and Venetia
    The Austrian force defeated the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza (24–25 July 1848), entered Milan (6 August) and Venice (24 August 1849), and restored Austrian rule. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence.