Programming Languages Timeline

  • Plankalkul (Plan Calculus)

    By: Konrad Zuse
    Purpose: Designed for engineering purposes
  • Fortran (The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System)

    By: John Backus & IBM
    Purpose: A high-level programming language for problems that can be expressed algebraically, used mainly in mathematics, science, and engineering.
  • Lisp (derives from LISt Processing)

    By: John McCarthy
    Purpose: Created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church's lambda calculus.
  • COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language)

    By: , Grace Hopper, William Selden, Gertrude Tierney, Howard Bromberg, Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves, Jean E. Sammet
    Purpose: Commonly used to write programs for businesses.
  • RPG (Report Program Generator)

    By: IBM
    Purpose: A report-building program
  • Basic (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)

    By: John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz
    Purpose: For interactive mainframe timesharing language
  • LOGO

    By: Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert
    Purpose: Has commands for movement and drawing produced line graphics either on screen or with a small robot called a "turtle"
  • B

    By: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie
    Purpose: For primarily non-numeric applications such as system programming,

    By: Niklaus Wirth
    Purpose: Small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring
  • C

    By: Dennis Ritchie
    Purpose: To be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support
  • ML (metalanguage)

    By: Robin Milner & others at the University of Edinburgh
    Purpose: Used to make statements about statements in another language (the object language)
  • SQL (Structured Query Language)

    By: Donald D. Chamberlin, Raymond F. Boyce, and ISO/IEC
    Purpose: Designed for managing data held in a relational database management system
  • ADA (Ada Lovelace)

    By: Jean Ichbiah, Tucker Taft
    Purpose: For large, long-lived applications – and embedded systems in particular
  • C++

    By: Bjarne Stroustrup
    Purpose: To precisely define a series of operations that a computer can perform to accomplish a task
  • Delphi (Object Pascal)

    By: Apple, Niklaus Wirth, Anders Hejlsberg
    Purpose: Help build or convert an application into a Web service.

    By: Wolfram Research
    Purpose: Used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields
  • Visual Basic

    By: Microsoft
    Purpose: Write many programs and applications using the components in Visual Basic.
  • Python

    By: Guido van Rossum and Python Software Foundation
    Purpose: Emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C
  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)

    By: Rasmus Lerdorf and The PHP Group
    Purpose: Designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language
  • Java (evolved from OAK)

    By: James Gosling and Sun Microsystems
    Purpose: General-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible
  • Javascript

    By: Brendan Eich
    Purpose: Allows client-side scripts to interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that is displayed, and is common in server-side programming, game development and the creation of desktop applications.