history of programming languages

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    Plankalkül (German pronunciation: ['pla?nkalky?l], "Plan Calculus") is a computer language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1945. It was the first high-level non-von Neumann programming language to be designed for a computer. Also, notes survive with scribblings about such a plan calculation dating back to 1941. Plankalkül was not published at that time owing to a combination of factors such as conditions in wartime and postwar Germany and his efforts to commerci
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    is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM at their campus in south San Jose, California[1] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continual use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynam
  • lisp

    is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation.[1] Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today; only Fortran is older (by one year). Like Fortran, Lisp has changed a great deal since its early days, and a number of dialects have existed over its history. Today, the most widely known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme.
    Lisp was

    is one of the oldest programming languages, primarily designed by Grace Hopper. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments.
    The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programming and other modern language features
  • rpg

    is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications. While IBM is the creator and primary vendor of RPG, the language is available from other mainframe and microcomputer manufacturers, including Unisys.
    It has a long history, having been developed by IBM in 1959 as the Report Program Generator - a tool to replicate punched card processing on the IBM 1401[1] then updated to RPG II for the IBM System/3 in the late 1960s, and since evolved into an HLL equivalent to COBOL and PL/I.
  • B

    B is a programming language that was developed at Bell Labs. It is extinct, having been superseded by the C language. It was mostly the work of Ken Thompson, with contributions from Dennis Ritchie, and first appeared circa 1969.
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    is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs.[4] Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix computer operating system.[5]
    C is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time,[6][7] and there are very few computer architect
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    is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the early 1970s at the University of Edinburgh,[1] whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage: it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (whose language, pplambda, a combination of the first-order predicate calculus and the simply typed polymorphic lambda calculus, had ML as its metalanguage). It is known for its use of the Hindley–Milner type in
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    Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in language support for explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada is an international standard; the current version (known as Ada 2012) is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012.
    Ada was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bul
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    is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.[3] Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, it adds object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. Originally named C with Classes, the language was renamed C++ in 1983,[4] as a pun involving the inc
  • pascal

    Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
    A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.
  • python

    Python is a general-purpose, interpreted high-level programming language[11] whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Its syntax is said to be clear[12][13] and expressive.[14] Python has a large and comprehensive standard library.[15]
    Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming styles. It features a fully dynamic type system and automatic memory management, similar to that of Scheme, Ruby, Perl, and Tcl. Like othe
  • java

    Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer archit
  • visual basic

    is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model first released in 1991. Visual Basic is designed to be relatively easy to learn and use.[1][2] Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX contro
  • Delphi

    Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Embarcadero Delphi.
    Object Pascal is an extension of the Pascal language that was developed at Apple Computer by a team led by Larry Tesler in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of Pascal. It is descended from an earlier object-oriented version of Pascal called Clascal, which was available on the Lisa computer.
  • javascript

    is an open source programming language commonly implemented as part of a web browser in order to create enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites.
    JavaScript is prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weakly typed and has first-class functions. It uses syntax influenced by the language C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are t
  • php

    PHP is an open source server-side scripting language designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. The code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page. It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applicatio
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    a multi-paradigm computer programming language used in education. It is an adaptation and dialect of the Lisp language; some have called it Lisp without the parentheses.[who?] It was originally conceived and written as a functional programming language,[1] and drove a mechanical turtle as an output device. It also has significant facilities for handling lists, files, I/O, and recursion. Today it is remembered mainly for its turtle graphics, though for tertiary level teaching it has been supersed
  • math-matic

    is the marketing name for the AT-3 compiler. Early programming language for UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II. Intended as an improvement over FORTRAN. Created by a group led by Charles Katz in 1957.
    Sperry Rand released a commercial compiler for its UNIVAC. Developed by Grace Hopper and others as a refinement of her earlier innovation, the A-0 compiler, the new version was called MATH-MATIC. Earlier work on the A-0 through A-2 compilers led to the development of the first English-language business data p
  • sql

    (pron.: /'?s kju? '?l/ "S-Q-L";[3] or Structured Query Language) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS).
    Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, its scope includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control.
    SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational model, as described in his influential 1970 pap