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Programming Languages

By laura.k
  • Plankalkul - "Plan Calculus"

    Created by Konrad Zuse, it was developed for engineering purposes and was the first high-level non-von Neumann programming language to be designed for a computer. However, it was many years before it was accepted in mainstream programming.

    Developed by Charles Katz, it was an early programming language for UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II, crearted to be an improvement over FORTRAN.
  • Lisp

    Created by John McCarthy as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, and was frequently used for artificial intelligence.
  • RPG - "Report Program Generator"

    Created by IBM, originally used to replicate the punched card process, and was intended to be a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • COBOL - "COmmon Business-Oriented Language"

    Designed by a team consisting of Grace Hopper, William Selden, Gertrude Tierney, Howard Bromberg, Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves, and Jean E. Sammet, and used mainly for business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments.
  • BASIC - "Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code"

    Developed by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz, and was intended to provide ease of computer use non-science students, making it easier for people to learn programming.
  • LOGO

    Designed by Wally Feurzeig and Seymour Papert to be used in education,. It was based on Lisp and was used to teach most computer science concepts.
  • B

    Designed by Ken Thompson, and was essentially BCPL stripped of unnecessary components to suit the memory capacity of minicomputers at the time.

    Designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It became very influential and many newer languages contain elements from it. It was named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.
  • C

    Created by Dennis Ritchie, its design map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it found lasting use in applications that had originally been coded in assembly language. It is one of the most widely used languages of all time, and most modern languages are based on C. This language encouraged cross-platform programming.
  • ML - "MetaLanguage"

    Conceived by Robin Milner as a way to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover. ML is known for its use of the Hindley–Milner type inference algorithm.
  • SQL - "Structured Query Language"

    Designed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce for managing data in relational database management systems, and originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus.
  • ADA

    Designed by Jean Ichbiah for the Department of Defense so that they could use a safe and updated language. It was named after Ada Lovelace.
  • C++

    Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an enhancement of C, and an efficient compiler to native code. Its application domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software.
  • Python

    Developed by Guido van Rossum as a general-purpose, interpreted high-level programming language created for code readability. It supports multiple programming paradigms.
  • Visual Basic

    Derived from BASIC by Microsoft and designed to be relatively easy to learn and use.
  • Delphi - Object PASCAL

    Developed by Apple, Niklaus Wirth, and Anders Hejlsberg as an extension of the PASCAL language that used a new syntax.
  • Fortran - "The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System"

    Developed by John Backus as a language suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. It has been in use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas.
  • Javascript

    Developed by Brendan Eich as a scripting language used as part of a web browser to enhance user interfaces and websites. It is unrelated to Java.
  • PHP - "Personal Home Page"

    Designed by Rasmus Lerdorf for web development and the production of dynamic web pages. It was one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document. Now its acronym is said to stand for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
  • Java

    Developed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems with a list of several criteria in mind:
    It should be "simple, object-oriented and familiar",
    It should be "robust and secure",
    It should be "architecture-neutral and portable",
    It should execute with "high performance",
    It should be "interpreted, threaded, and dynamic"
    It was designed to run across all platforms without the need to be recompiled, and described with the phrase, “write once, run anywhere”.