Programming Languages

  • Plankalkül

    German for "Plan Calculus", it was a programming language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945, and first released in 1948. It was the first high-level programming language to be designed for a computer.
  • Fortran

    Formerly "FORTRAN", derived from "FORmula TRANslator", it is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language (developed by John Backus et al. at IBM) first appearing in 1957, especially suited to numeric and scientific computation.

    Developed from 1955-1957 by a team led by Charles Katz under direction of Grace Hopper, "MATH-MATIC" was the marketing name for the AT-3 (Algebraic Translator 3) compiler, an early programming language for the UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II.
  • Lisp

    Developed by John McCarthy et al. in 1958 at MIT and first implemented by Steve Russell on an IBM 704 computer, it was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, but quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research. The name LISP derives from "LISt Processor".
  • RPG

    RPG or "Report Program Generator", originally developed by IBM in 1959, is one of the few languages created for punched card machines which are now commonly used for generation of reports from data files, including matching record and sub-total reports.

    Designed by H. Bromberg and H. Discount et al. during 1959, it was a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use and on mainframe computers. Its name is an acronym for "COmmon Business-Oriented Language".

    Developed in 1964 by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz, its name stands for "Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code" and its purpose as a procedural language was to provide a way for students to write simple computer programs.
  • LOGO

    Logo is an educational programming language designed in 1967 by W. Feurzeig, S. Papert, and C. Solomon, widely known for its use of turtle graphics (command-based drawing or movement graphics). The name was created by Feurzeig while at (now) BBN Technologies, and is derived from Greek "logos", meaning word or thought.
  • B

    Developed at Bell Laps Circa in 1969 by Ken Thompson with Dennis Ritchie. Its name may be a contraction of "BCPL" which it was derived from, purposed primarily for non-numeric applications such as system programming.

    Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices. It was developed on the pattern of the earlier ALGOL 60 language, and is named in honor of Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, philosopher, and physicist.
  • C

    Originally developed at Bell Laps by Dennis Ritchie from 1972-73, it was a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language purposed to make utilities running on Unix.
  • ML

    ML or "Meta Language" is a statically-scoped, general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others at the University of Edinburgh in the early 1970s.
  • SQL

    SQL or "Structured Query Language" is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in RDBMSes and RDSMSes particularly useful in handling structured data. It was initially developed at IBM by D.D. Chamberlin and R.F. Boyce starting in the early 1970s until it first appeared in 1974, and was initially released later in 1986.
  • ADA

    Developed in the early 1980s by a team led by Dr. Jean Ichbiah at CII-Honeywell-Bull in France, its purpose was as a internationally standardized, general purpose programming language used in a wide variety of applications. Its name "ADA" was chosen in honor of Ada Lovelace, regarded as the world's first programmer.
  • C++

    A general-purpose programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979, it was an extension of the C programming language, or "C with Classes", where it has almost always been implemented as a "compiled language".
  • Visual Basic

    First appearing in 1991, it is an event-driven programming language and environment derived from BASIC and developed by Microsoft that provides a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows programmers to modify code by simply dragging and dropping objects and defining their behavior and appearance.
  • Python

    Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. It constructs an object-oriented approach to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects.
  • PHP

    PHP or "Hypertext Preprocessor" is a general-purpose programming language originally designed for web development. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 and released in 1995, where it is now developed and produced by the PHP Development Team and Zend Technologies.
  • Delphi

    Originally developed by Borland as a rapid application development tool for Windows as the successor of Turbo Pascal, the language was designed by Anders Hejlsberg, and its name was suggested as a code name in reference to the Oracle at Delphi.
  • Java

    Designed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, it is a general-purpose programming language intended so that its compiled code can run on all platforms that support Java (WORA).
  • JavaScript

    Designed by Brendan Eich at Netscape, JavaScript is a high-level, "multi-paradigm" programming language that enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications.