2.1.5 Computer Programming Language Timeline

  • Plankalkul

    Designed by Konrad Zuse. Plankalkül has drawn comparisons to APL and relational algebra. It includes assignment statements, subroutines, conditional statements, iteration, floating point arithmetic, arrays, hierarchical record structures, assertions, exception handling, and other advanced features such as goal-directed execution.
  • Fortan

    Originally developed by IBM. It is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. The name is a blend derived from The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System.
  • Lisp

    Designed by John McCarthy. It is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation. The name LISP derives from "LISt Processing".
  • RPG

    It was develped by IBM. It is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications. RPG stood for Report Program Generator.

    Primarily designed by Grace Hopper. COBOL as defined in the original specification included a PICTURE clause for detailed field specification. It did not support local variables, recursion, dynamic memory allocation, or structured programming constructs. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language.

    Basic was designed by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, USA to provide computer access to non-science students. It is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. The name is an acronym from Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
  • LOGO

    Designed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert. It is a multi-paradigm computer programming language used in education. It was originally conceived and written as a functional programming language, and drove a mechanical turtle as an output device. The name is derived from the Greek logos meaning word, emphasising the contrast between itself and other existing programming languages that processed numbers.
  • B

    It was mostly the work of Ken Thompson, with contributions from Dennis Ritchie. B was essentially the BCPL system stripped of any component that Thompson felt he could do without, in order to make it fit within the memory capacity of the minicomputers of the time. B did not stand for anything specific.
  • Pascal

    Designed by Niklaus Wirth.It is a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
  • C

    C was initially developed by Dennis Ritchie. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix computer operating system.
  • ML

    Designed by Robin Milner & others at the University of Edinburgh. It is known for its use of the Hindley–Milner type inference algorithm, which can automatically infer the types of most expressions without requiring explicit type annotations. Additionally, the use of the Hindley–Milner type inference algorithm ensures type safety—there is a formal proof that a well-typed ML program does not cause runtime type errors. ML stands for metalanguage
  • SQL

    Designed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce. It is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). It stands for Structured Query Language.
  • ADA

    It was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull. It has built-in language support for explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. ADA is not an acronym, but it was named after Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace.
  • C++

    Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.

    It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram and is developed by Wolfram Research. It is a computational software program used in scientific, engineering, and mathematical fields and other areas of technical computing.
  • Python

    Designed by Guido van Rossum. It is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Its syntax is said to be clear and expressive. Python has a large and comprehensive standard library.
  • JavaScript

    It was designed by Brendan Eich. It is an open source client-side scripting language commonly implemented as part of a web browser in order to create enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites.
  • Java

    The creator was James Gosling. It is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
  • PHP

    Designed by Rasmus Lerdorf. It is an open source server-side scripting language designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, it is now said to stand for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
  • Delphi

    Developed by Borland. Delphi is a native code compiler that runs under Window v3.1 or Windows '95. Delphi is essentially object Pascal with similar programming tools found in Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0.
  • Visual Basic

    Visual Basic
    Developed by Microsoft. Visual Basic was designed to be easily learned and used by beginner programmers. The language not only allows programmers to create simple GUI applications, but to also develop complex applications.