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Post-Romanticism (1890-1930)

  • Gustav Mahler (Maximalism)

    Austrian composer; some orchestral works can represent maximalism; large 10 programmatic symphonies, orchestral Lieder; conductor in Europe and the USA
  • Issac Albeniz (Impressionism)

    Spanish composer and pianist; very important to Spain
  • Claude Debussy (Impressionism)

    French composer and pianist; inventor of musical impressionism; influential modern composers
  • Pietro Mascagni (Impressionism)

    Italian composer and conductor; he became the official composer of the Fascist regime in the 1930's
  • Richard Strauss (Maximalism)

    Composer of tone poems and some of the first modern operas; accomplished conductor; works epitomized maximalism
  • Maurice Ravel (Impressionism)

    French composer; extremely versatile; innovator in pianistic style; expert orchestrator
  • Erik Satie (Impressionism)

    Not an impressionist, but a leader in new French aesthetics on which impressionism was built; incredible innovator
  • Arnold Schoenberg (Expressionism)

    The father of 12-tone music; important as an innovator; teacher of Webern and Berg
  • Ottorino Respighi (Impressionism)

    Italian composer; used impressionism
  • Anton von Webern (Expressionism)

    Student of Schoenberg; known for his musical brevity and clarity of texture; uses pointillism; wrote no operas
  • Alban Berg (Expressionism)

    Student of Schoenberg; expressive language; often atonal
  • Nadia Boulanger (Impressionism)

    Important teacher of composers in the 20th century; most prominent American composers of the first half of the century studied with her; conductor and composer
  • Maximalism

    Elements are pushed to the extreme; expansion of forms, genres, and sizes of traditional musical entities; thick with motives and themes; often used an orchestra, a virtuosic unit;
  • Impressionism

    First introduced by Claude Debussy; all chords were equal, no chord progressions; melody was more important; vague quality of each musical element; all textures were used for color and atmosphere; quiet, dreamy like; Louds where short lived
  • Expressionism

    Most rebellious; melodies were optional; elements of rhythm, form, and timbre were traditional; Atonality
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  • Lili Boulanger (Impressionism)

    French composer; first woman to win the Prix de Rome, 1913; sister of Nadia