Peacemaking, peacekeeping-international relations 1918-36

Timeline created by brookes.ele
In History
  • Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

  • Period: to

    Key events: 1918-36

  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

  • Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

    General disarmament, freedom of navigation, free trade and an end to secret treaties.
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Germany and Russia)

  • Armistice on the Western Front; Germany's surrender

  • Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

  • Abdication of Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary

  • Paris Peace Conference begins

  • Agreement reached to set up the League of Nations

  • Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles

  • D'annunzio occupies Fiume

  • Treaty of St Germain signed with Austria

  • Treaty of Neuilly signed with Bulgaria

    Bulgaria had to pay reparations and armed forces limited to 20,000 men.
    -Northern Macedonia went to Yugoslavia
    -Western Thrace went to Greece
    -Dobrudja went to Romania.
  • US senate fails to ratify the Versailles Treaty

  • Allenstein and Marienwerder plebiscites vote to remain part of Germany

  • Treaty of Trianon signed with Hungary

    Hungary was obliged to accept reparations and an upper limit on it's armed forces of 35,000 men.
    -Slovakia and Romania went to Czechoslovakia
    -Croatia and Slovenia went to Yugoslavia
    -Transylvania went to Romania
    -Burgenland went to Austria
  • Treaty of Sevres signed with Turkish Empire

    -Straits of the Dardanelles under the control of an International Commission and to be open to all countries' shipping
    -Turkey lost all rights to the Sudan and Libya; had to recognise French Morocco and Tunis, Bitish Egypt and Cyprus
    -Saudi Arabia and Armenia became independent.
    -Syria, Iraq and Palestine became League mandates, administered by Britain and France
    -Greece received some Turkish Aegean islands and Eastern Thrace, administered area around Smyrna
    -Kurdistan became autonomous
  • League resolves the Aaland Islands dispute

    The League resolved the dipute between Sweden and Finland. The League awarded the islands to Finland.
  • Poland seizes Vilna

  • Franco-Polish Treaty

  • Treaty of Riga ens Russo-Polish War

  • French occupy several towns in the Ruhr temporarily

  • League decides on partition of Upper Silesia between Poland and Germany

    Upper Silesia was partitioned between Poland and Germany. The League council drew up aline for the border between Poland and Germany and provided free movement across the border so that Upper Silesia's integrity as an economic unit would be preserved. Neither Germany, nor Poland, were satisfied with this decision but they did sign an agreement accepting it in May 1922.
  • Allies fix reparations total at 132 billion gold marks

  • Washington Naval Conference

    Four-Power Treaty (USA, Britain, France, Japan)
    -end Anglo-Japanese alliance
    -recognise each other's possessions in the Pacific and attempt to reach a diplomatic solutions. Five Power Treaty (USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy)
    -total tonnage ratio in capital warships fixed 5:5:3:1.75:1.75
    -10 year "building holiday" on capital ships
    -USA and Britain agreed not to construct new fortresses or naval bases in the western Pacific.
  • Washinton Naval Conference

    Nine-Power Treaty (USA, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, China, Netherlands, Portugal)
    -respect China's sovereignty
    -"Open Door" allowed all countries equal trading rights in China
    -Discuss problems of common interest.
  • Unsuccessful Genoa Conference on economic recovery

  • Treaty of Rapallo signed by Germany and the USSR

  • Chanak Incident

  • Mussolini appointed Prime Minister of Italy

  • French and Belgium troops occupy the Ruhr

    France and Belgium took troops into the Ruhr as the German government asked for a postponement of payments. The Ruhr produced 80% of Germany's steel and 70% of it's coal. French motives were to extract what was due to them but also to see if there was a possibility of working towards the achievement of an independent Rhineland.
  • Lithuania seizes Memel

    The Treaty of Versailles had taken away from Germany the port of Memel, which had a mainly German-speaking population.Memel's status had notbeen determined at Versailles and teh Allies administerd it, anticipating that it would eventually be handed over to Lithuania. However, Lithuania, losing patience, occupied it in 1923.
  • Treaty of Lausanne signed with Turkey

  • Italy occupy Corfu

    Italian troops occupied Corfu after the muder of an Italian general by Greek bandits. Mussolini sought to bully Greece into paying compensation to Italy.
  • Franco-Czech Alliance

  • Great Britain recognises the USSR

  • London Conference agrees on Dawes Plan

  • Locarno Conference

  • Greece invades Bulgaria but pulls out after League resolution

  • Locarno Treaty signed in London

    1. Belgium, France and Germany accepted the western borders of Germany, including the demilitarisation of the Rhineland.
    2. Britain and Italy acted as guarantors of the Franco-German-Belgium borders in the west.
    3. "Alleged" breaches of teh Franco-German-Belgium borders in the west were to be referred to the League of Nations.
    4. Germany and France agreed to sign arbitration treaties with Poland and Czech., agreeing to settle disputes peacefully.
    5. Germany should enter League of Nations.
  • Treaty of Berlin: Germany and the USSR

    The USSR and Germany promised each other that they would remain neutral in the event of either being attacked by a third power.
  • Germany joins the League of Nations

  • Allies Control Commission for Germany ended

  • Geneva Naval Conference

  • Pact of Paris (Kellogg-Briand Pact) signed

    Briand (French Foreign Minister) proposed a treaty with the USA outlawing war between France and the USA. Kellogg (US Secretary of State) suggested that all countres be invited to sign a pact in which they renounced war.. 15 countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Terms: The signatories agreed to "renounce war as an instrument of national policy", reserving the right to defend themselves against external aggression. By 1933, 65 countries, including the USSR, had signed the Pact.
  • Hague Conference approves Young Plan

    Young Plan:
    1. reparationcost reduced from 132 billion gold marks to 121 billion gold marks.
    2. Germany was to pay an annual sum until 1988
    3. Germany was to initially pay 1.7 bilion marks each year, increasing, gradually, to 2.4 billion marks by 1966. Payments in the first 10 years would be lower than under teh schedule laid down by the Dawes Plan.
    4. The Reparations Agency was abolished.
    5. Another foreign loan to Germany of $300 million was agreed.
    6. Demilitarisation of the Rhineland.
  • Wall Street Crash- Germany

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on Germany: Economic recovery in the mid-1920's was very fragile and highly dependent on the continuation of US loans. Resulted in collapse of Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler, with his attendant aggressive foreign policy.
  • Wall Street Crash- Japan

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on Japan: The Wall St. Crash created an unprecedented economic crisis in Japan, which led to a dramatic change in Japanese foreign policy, and, to an increasingly authoritarian style of politics that involved the undermining of Japan's parliamentary system and the groing political influence of Japan's armed forces.
  • Wall Street Crash- Italy

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on Italy: Unemployment in Italy rose and living conditions of most ordinary Italians fell. The government obliged industrial workers to accept wage cuts in 1930 and 34, whilst the agricultural wages dropped by beetween 20 to 40% during teh 1930's. Lead to Mussolini's increasingly aggressive foreign policy in the 1930's.
  • Wall Street Crash- Britain

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on Britain: British government followed a policy of appeasement in the 1930's. A strong current of pacifism was evident in Britain
  • Wall Street Crash- France

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on France: The Great Depression made France's leaders much less incined to stand up to Hitler's violations of the Treaty of Versailles in the mid and late 1930's. French preoccupation with bringing down unemployment and reviving the economic output took priority over rearmament.
  • Wall Street Crash- US foreign policy

    The Great Depression dislocated the internatoinal economic system and created huge unemployment and social distress.
    Impact on US foreign policy: America had withdrawn into isolationism in the 1920's following the Senate's failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The Great Depression led to US politicians withdrawing even further from international collaboration and to putting US economic intersts before all else.
  • London Naval Treaty

    Sought to extend both the duration and terms of the Washinton Naval Treaties 1922. The USA and Britain were particularly looking to prevent a naval race but establishing limitations on cruisers and submarines. All five powers approved the extension of the Washington Naval Treaty's moratorium (freeze) on building capital ships for a further 5 years. France and Italy refused tosign any lagreements on imitations on cruisers an destroyers. USA:Britain:Japan 10:10:7 light cruisers and 10:10:6 heavy
  • Allied occupation forces complete their withdrawel from the Rhineland

  • Hoover proposes 1-year moratorium on debts

    Hoover proposed a one-year moratorium (freeze) on all war debt and reparation payments.
  • Mukden Incident: Kwantung Army takes control of Manchuria

    The Japanese Army (Kwantung Army) in Manchuria blew up part of South Manchurian railway hilst blaming it on the Chinese. They then occupied much of Manchuria.
  • Geneva Disamament Conference opens

    Underlying issue and obstacle to agreement at Geneva was the balance of military forces between France and Germany. The German governent wanted to have an army equal to France's (either Germany rearms or France disarms) but France wouldn't accept either scenario (Germany had a larger population and industrial capacity, therefore a threat).
  • Lausanne Confernce on reparations

    At Lausanne, it was decided to suspend reparation payments for 3 years and to reduce Germany's reparations bill to a final payment of just 3 billion marks.
  • Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

  • League votes in favour of Lytton Report on Manchuria

    -recommended that Manchuria should be an autonomous state but remain under Chinese sovereignty
  • Japan announces its withdrawal from League

  • World Economic Conference in London

  • Germany leaves the Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations

  • The USA recognises the USSR

  • Disarmament Conference closes

  • The USSR joins the League of Nations

  • Wal-Wal skirmish in Abyssinia

    Italy picked a quarrel with Abyssinia after a small military clash at Wal-Wal
  • Japan repudiates the Washington Naval Treaty

  • Pierre Laval discusses Abyssinia with Mussolini

  • Saar plebiscite: led to reunion with Germany

  • Hitler announces reintroduction of conscription

  • Stresa Front signed by Britain, France and Italy

    -agreed to take co-ordinated action aagainst any country unilaterally violating existing treaties
  • French-Soviet Union Mutual Assistance Treaty

  • Soviet-Czech Mutual Assistance Treaty

  • Anglo-German Naval Convention

    Britain angered France and Italy by signing the Anglo-German Naval Convention, allowing Germany to have a navy with a tonnage of 35% of Britain's.
  • Italian invasion of Abyssinia; League sanctions

    -sales of arms, rubber and certain metals to Italy banned
    -loans to Italy were banned
    -most Italian imports were banned
  • Hoare Laval Pact leaked to the press

    Hoare (Britain) and Laval (France) secretly agreed to allow Italy to have 2/3 of Abyssinia and Selassie (Abyssinia) be compensated elsewhere.Proposed pact leaked out and public outcry in France and Britain.
  • London Naval Conference opens

    The naval limitations laid down at the Washington Naval Treaty 1922 and the London Naval Treaty 1930 were due to expire in 1936 . However, Japan insisted on parity (equality) with the USA and Britian in terms of ratios of fleets and walked out of the conference when the USA and Britain refused to cenede this.
  • Japan walks out of the London Naval Conference

  • Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland

    Hitler felt that he could remilitarise as the Stresa Front had collapsed and the international community was preoccupied with the Abyssinia crisis.
  • Italy completes the conquest of Abyssinia

  • League ends sanctions on Italy

  • Spanish Civil War begins

  • Rome-Berlin Axis signed

  • Italy leaves the League