Peacemaking and Peacekeeping 1918-1936

  • Armistice

    An armistice was signed between the countries involved in the First World War, therefore marking the end of the war.
  • Polish-Soviet war/ Russo-Polish war

    Poles tried to expand eastwards and Russia was in no place to fight, as it was weak and recovering from its recent Civil war. This is an example of a failed attempt at peacekeeping in the 1902s.
  • Greco-Turkish war

    The war lasted up to 1925 and it was a way in which the Turks decided to undermine the Treaty of Sèvres. Greece had been promised land from the Ottoman Empire after the Treaty, which is why it was involved in the fight. This is an example of a failed attempt at peacekeeping in the 1920s.
  • Treaty of Versailles is signed

    The Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany. Amongst its terms, Germany had military restrictions(100,000 men)/requirement of disarmament, loss of territory, requirement to pay reparations (£6000 million) and blame for the war (article 231- the war guilt clause). The League of Nations also emerged from this Treaty. The Treaty was supposed to work under Wilson's 14 points, but the differing views of the Big 3 didn't allow so.
  • The League of Nations

    As part of the TOV, the LON was set up as an international organisation that would help resolve disputes. The LON operated under a covenant. One of its main principles was collective security, something expressed by Article X and what prevented the US from joining due to disagreement from its Congress.
  • Establishment of the Mandates System

    With the establishment of the LON, colonies were to be administered by the organisation. The mandates were given accordingly to countries that had conquered them from Germany and the Ottoman Empire (Article 22). The LON had to prevent slavery in the madates and keep them open for trade. "A" Mandates: soon be ready for independence (Ottoman), "B" mandates: less advanced (Germany-Africa), "C" mandates: underdeveloped (Germany-Pacific).
  • The Anglo-American Guarantee

    This was a treaty proposed after the Great War that said that both Britain and the USA would protect France in the event of German aggression. The US Senate never ratified this guarantee, which means it never actually came into force. As a result of the USA's withdrawal, Britain also left the Treaty. Both Britain and the USA adapted a policy of isolationism from the rest of Europe by 1921.
  • Period: to

    Weimar Republic + Policy of Fulfilment (cooperate with TOV to gain concession from the Allies in the future)

    This new Republic replaced the imperial government. Its presidents were Ebert (up to 1925) and Hindenburg. After the Rhur crisis and hyperinflation Germany struggled to recover, but when Stresemann was appointed as chancellor in 1923 and then became Foreign Minister, he helped Germany recover through diplomacy. After Stresemann, hyperinflation was solved, there was a "cultural boom", and German international relations were improved (joins LON in 1926). Weimar ends with Hitler's Enabling Act.
  • The Treaty of St. Germain is signed

    The Treaty of St. Germani dealt with Austria. As part of the terms, Austria lost land to Czescholovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Poland and Italy. Austria suffered greatly economically because most of its industrial areas were lost. As part of the self-determination "rule", its population decreased from 22 million to 6.5 million. It is important to note that the Treaties of St. Germain and Trianon dismantled the Habsburg empire
  • Treaty of Neuilly is signed

    The Treaty of Neuilly dealt with Bulgaria. Amongst its terms, Bulgaria lost territory to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia, had army reductions (to 20,000) and had to pay reparations (£100 million).
  • Vilna LON incident

    Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, was in the border with Poland. The population was largely Polish and both countries wanted the city. A private Polish army took control of Vilna, Lithuania appealed to the LON and the latter told the Poles to withdraw. Poland refused but the LON did not persist, as France wanted Poland as an ally against Germany and Britain wasn't prepared to fight. Poland kept control of Vilna. Failure for the League
  • Treaty of Trianon is signed

    The Treaty of Trianon dealt with Hungary. As part of the terms, Hungary lost territory to Czecholslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland and Romania, meaning that most of its richest corn land was lost. Hungary suffered greatly economically and its population, under the rule of "self-determination" decreased from 21 million to 7.5 million.
  • The Treaty of Sèvres is signed

    The Treaty of Sèvres dealt with Turkey. As part of the terms, Turkey lost land to Greece, Italy, France (became mandates) and Britain (became mandates). However, Turkey challenged the peace settlement by fighting to recover their lands lost to Greece.
  • Upper Silesia LON Incident

    Upper Silesia, and industrial area between Germany and Poland waas being disputed by both countries. A plebescite was organised and one third of the population wished to be Polish (rural areas) while two thirds wished to be German (indutrial areas). It was a peaceful settlement. The LON also built safeguards to prevent any future disputes. Success for the League.
  • Aaland Islands LON incident

    Both Finlad and Sweden wanted control of the islands, which were midway within them. Both countries appealed to the LON, who decided that the islands were to be under Finish control. However, the rights of the Swedish minority were preserved. War was avoided. Success for the League
  • Period: to

    The Little Entente

    The Little entente was a series of Treaties within this timespan between Czecholovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania (new states formed after the Paris Peace Treaties) in order to protect themselves from other central European states (eg Poland and Bulgaria). France supported this alliance and tried to use it to its benefit against the growing German power.
  • Period: to

    The Genoa Conference

    34 nations attended to: review Germany's obligations (this failed due to Rapallo), organise strategies to rebuild central/eastern Europe and negotiate a sain relationship between the Capitalist Europe and the Bolsheviks that took over Russia,
  • The Treaty of Rapallo is signed

    A consequence of the TOV was that, as Germany was excluded from the LON, it signed a Treaty with the USSR in the search of mutual assistance (Soviet Russia had also been excluded). The Treaty allowed Germany to escape the disarmament clauses of the TOV due to the development of weapons in Russia. This was a significant challenge to the TOV, as it was being ignored and undermined.
  • Corfu LON incident

    While Italy mapped the borders between Greece and Albania, it invaded the Greek island of Corfu because Tellini, the Italian General, was killed in an anonymous attack. Mussolini demanded compensation from the Greeks. Greece appealed to the LON. The decision was that Greece would pay the LON and, when the killers were found, they could have their money back. However, the LON gave in to Italy's greater power, so Italy got the money anyway. Failure for the LON.
  • Lithuania seizes Memel

    This was one of the effects of the Vilna incident of 1920. The Poles kept control of Lithuania due to the LON's weakness (they gave in to greater powers-France), and Lithuania decided to protest by attempting to annex Memel. This is an example of a failed attempt at peacekeeping in the 1920s.
  • French and Belgian Troops invade the Rhur

    Germany had been unable to keep up with reparations, which led the French to take action. The Rhur, Germany's industrial area, was invaded, and reparations were extracted in the form of raw materials. The German workers carried out passive resistance, but the crisis led to hyperinflation, as the government simply decided to print more money (it became worthless). The troops left in August 1925, as it was an economic failure and passive resistance had been revoked by Stresemann.
  • The Treaty of Laussane is signed

    The Treaty of Lausanne also dealt with Turkey and it followed from the Treaty of Sèvres, which didn't work out. It was a compromise with Turkey, who regained the Eastern Thrace.
  • Mosul LON incident

    Turkey claimed Mosul, a British mandate in the territory of Iraq. Turkey argued that Mosul was part of its land in the past, therefore claiming it. This issue was discussed in Lausanne but not solved. A plebescite was carried out and the population decided to be under Iraq's control. A war was avoided and, even though Turkey challenged the LON, the problem was solved. Success for the LON.
  • The Dawes Plan

    The Dawes Plan was created by the USA in order to help Germany recover economically and politically. The USA would lend Germany money not only to recover after the Great War, but to pay reparations to Britan and France too.
  • Bulgaria LON incident

    Greek soldiers were killed in the border between Greece and Bulgaria, which lead the Greek to invade Bulgaria. Bulgaria appealed to the LON, who sent in a commission. The commission found in favour of the Bulgarians, so the Greek were forced to leave and to pay compensation. The LON avoided war. Success for the League.
  • The Treaty of Locarno is signed

    The discussions of this treaty took place from 5-15 October, but it was formally signed later in London. According to this Treaty, Germany accepted its borders with France and Belgium. These borders were guaranteed by the British and Italians. However, there was no formal confirmation considering Germany's Easter borders, which let her to think that some negotiation could still be achieved, undermining the TOV. Result: "Spirit of Locarno" (general sense of optimism)
  • Germany joins the League of Nations

    As a result of the Locarno Treaty, it was seen that Germany was willing to cooperate, which meant that it was granted with a permanent seat at the League of Nations and that it could now have a say in international discussions.
  • Kellogg-Briand pact signed

    65 nations signed this Treaty renouncig for war as a resource to solve conflicts
  • The Young Plan

    After the Dawes Plan, Germany was still unable to keep up with reparations payments, so the Young Plan was organised. This reduced the value of reparations to 112 billion Gold Marks and extended the period of time for which reparations should be payed to 59 years (1988).