Big four

Road to War

  • Versailles

    Terms of the treaty included:
    -War guilt and reparations
    -Annexation of German colonies
    -Establishment the League(in which Germany could not join)
    British politions saw the treaty as too harsh, reason for appeasement
    Many Germans beleived the terms were unfair.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    This was set to solve international problems without resorting to war. The basis of the League was created by President Wilson: It was to be like a world parliment with representatives of all nations that meeted together regularly to decide on matters that affected them.
  • Washington Conference

    Called for by Warren G Harding. USA, Britain and France reduced the size of their navies. A ten-year agreement fixed the ratio of battleships at 5:5:3—that is 525,000 tons for the USA, 525,000 tons for Britain, and 315,000 tons for Japan. Smaller limits with a ratio of 1.7 applied to France and Italy.
  • Rapollo Treaty

    Treaty between Germany and the USSR
  • Ruhr Occupation

    Ruhr Occupation
    In which the Ruhr industrial region in Germany was occupied by French and Belgian troops as a response to Germany not paying reparations. The League didn't intervene. The US helped resolve the problem with the Dawes plan. Franch withdrew in 1925. Contributed to hyperinflation
  • Lausanne

    German reparations cancelled
  • Corfu

    Angered by the murder of General Tellini by Greeks at the border between Greece and Albania, Mussolini bombarded and occupied the Greek island of Corfu. 15 people were killed. Greece appealled to the League. After some of Mussolini's intervetion, Greece had to appologise and pay compensation. The Italians withdrew on September 27.
  • Locarno Treaties

    Locarno Treaties
    Agreements were made that:
    -Germany accepted borders with France and Belgium. Britain and Italy would protect France if violated
    -Rhineland was a demiliterised zone
    -France and Germany would settle disputes through the League
  • Germany joins League

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    It marked the high point in international relations. 65 nations agreed not to use war as a means of solving problems but they agreed to keep their armies for 'self-defence.'
  • Wall Street Crash

    The price of stock fell as too many people went into the stock market buisness with loaned money
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff

  • Japan invades Manchuria

  • Disarmemant Conference

    Disarmemant Conference
    German delegates walk out in protest of Germany not being given equal terms.
  • Coalition goverment in France

    made up of socilaists and radicals
    PM Daladier
    Instability: 6 different coalition in 2 years
  • Hitler becomes Chancellor

    German delegates leave disarmament conference in rpotest to to being given equal terms.
  • Japan leaves League

  • Four Power Pact

    Major powers sign agreement sating they have authority over smaller nations.
  • Germany leaves League

  • Non-agression Pact with Poland

  • Anchuluss Attempt

  • USSR joins League

  • Saar Plebiscite

  • Rearmament in Germany announced

  • Stresa Pact

    Alliance between Italy, France and Britain against Germany
  • Franco-Soviet Treaty

    Alliance between France and the USSR with the aim of encircling Nazi Germany.
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty

  • Period: to

    Abyssinain Crisis

    Italy launches full scale invasion
    Condemned by the League of Nations
    Sanctions imposed 18 Nov
    Italian victory at high economic price
    Budget deficet risen from 2.5 bill to 16 bill lire
    Oct 1936- lira devalued by 40%
  • Hoare-Laval Pact

    Secret treaty that would give Italy 1/3 of Abyssinia. Leaked to French press and caused a scandal leading to the resignation of the Foreign Ministers. Undermined the authority of the League
  • Rhineland

    Hitler invades. France had a caretaker goverment therefore they could make a decisive action against the Germans. Britain doesn't oppose Hitler's actions and is described as invading his "own backyard"
  • Popular Front in France

    Leon Blum's Goverment comes into power
  • Period: to

    Spanish Civil War

    French and Britain pursued "non intervention"
    Mussolini wanted to stop the spread of communism and prevent communists from attaining startegic position in Medeterranian
    Hitler saw it as an oppertunity as a test run for war. Most notably the bombing of Guernica
  • Four Year Plan

    Hitler initiates economic plan in help rearmament in Germany
  • Rome-Berlin Axis

  • Japan invades China

  • Hossbach Memorandum

  • Anti-Comintern Pact

    Treaty of alliance between Italy, Germany and Japan
  • Italy leaves League

  • Anchuluss

  • Berchtesgarden

    Hitler and Chamberlain meet at Berchtesgarden
    decided that Sudeten German areas to be transfered to Germany
  • Godesberg

    Hitler insists demands of Hungarians and Poles should be met
    German troops to occupy Sudetenland on 28th Sept
  • Munich Conference

    Czechoslovakia lost 70% of heavy industry
    1/3 of population, Slovakia and Ruthenia given self goverment
  • Czechoslovakia

    Hitler encouraged Slovaks to cause disruption
    German troops occupy Czechoslovakia
    Bohemia and Moravia declared a protectorate
  • Guarantee to Poland

    "In event of any action which clearly threatend Polish independence...His Majesty's Goverment would feel themselves bound at once to lend the Polish Goverment all support in their power."
    -failed to make Hitler more cautious, Hitler declares Anglo-German Naval Agreement and Non Agression Pact with Poland invalid
  • Italy invades Albania

  • Pact of Steel

    • Germany and Italy agree to come to each other's aid if it became involved in hostilities.
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Nazi-Soviet Pact
    Secret protocol of dividing Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influences, Poland to be divided between the two powers.
    Ensured that Hitler wouldn't have to fight a war on two fronts.
    Delayed Soviet Union from war against Germany (for the moment)
  • Britain and Poland Military Alliance

  • Germany invades Poland

    -Germany demands Danzig and the Polish corridor
    -Germans claim that Poles attached their wireless stations at the border
    -Germans invade at 4:45am
  • Ultimatum to Germany

    -Demands Germany to call off attack by 11:00am
    -no response recieved by this time, GB and France declare war
  • Italy declares war of GB & France