• The Ideology of Conservatism

    The Ideology of Conservatism
    Conservatism was heavily influenced by Edmund Burke, who published Reflections on the Revolution in France, and Joseph de Maistre. They believed in hereditary monarchies, in the idea that each generation is responsible for preserving and transmitting culture to the next, and in revolution through nonviolent means.
  • Romanticism in Music

    Romanticism in Music
    Ludwig van Beethoven felt that music should reflect inner feelings. He wrote his third symphony for Napoleon. Its rhythms represent dramatic struggles and uplifting resolutions.
  • The Revolt of Latin America

    The Revolt of Latin America
    Spanish authority in the Western Hemisphere was weakened when Napoleon overthrew the Spanish Bourbon monarch. South American countries rapidly revolted and gained their independence, starting with Argentina.
  • The Peace Settlement

    The Peace Settlement
    The Quadruple Alliance of Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia agreed to stay allied. Their goal was preserve peace and restore the Bourbons to the French throne.
  • France

    Louis XVIII accepted the Napoleonic Code. This established a bicameral legislature with equality under the law.
  • Intervention in Spain

    Intervention in Spain
    Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. He battled the Cortes and tore up the Constitution, prompting angry officers and merchants to overthrow him.
  • Great Britain: Rule of the Tories

    Great Britain: Rule of the Tories
    Britain was governed by the landowning elite and voting was only for landowning gentry. They benefited landowners with laws such as the Corn Act, which placed heavy tariffs on foreign grain.
  • Economic Liberalism

    Economic Liberalism
    Economic liberalists believed government should be uninvolved in the economy. David Ricardo's book, Principles of Political Economy, described the "iron law of wages," which was a cycle that the government only perpetuated with their involvement.
  • The Concert of Europe

    The Concert of Europe
    The Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss issues and take unified action. They became the Quintuple Alliance when they lifted the occupation of France at Aix-la-Chapelle.
  • Great Britain

    Great Britain
    The industrial middle class began gaining power in Britain and pushing against the ruling Tory political party. At one demonstration in Peterloo, troops attacked a crowd of protesters, killing 11.
  • Repression in Central Europe

    Repression in Central Europe
    Metternich wrote the Karlsbad Decrees in response to growing liberalism in Prussia. These decrees closed the Burschenshaften, censored the press, and placed universities under a close watch.
  • The Principle of Intervention

    The Principle of Intervention
    The Principle of Intervention was the decision that Great European powers had the right to send in armies to restore legitimate monarchs. Britain did not agree. At Laibach, Austria, Russia, and Prussia authorized Austria to invade Naples.
  • Restoration in France

    Restoration in France
    Charles X succeeded Louis XVIII. He encouraged the Catholic Church to return to French education and indemnified nobles that had lost land in the Revolution.
  • Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars

    Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
    Nicholas succeeded the enlightened monarch Alexander I. He was crushed in a rebellion, which led him to become even more conservative.
  • The Greek Revolt

    The Greek Revolt
    The Principle of Intervention could also be used to support revolutions. The major European powers feared the Ottoman Empire, and aided Greece in gaining independence from the Ottomans.
  • Revolution in Belgium

    Revolution in Belgium
    Catholic Belgium and Protestant Netherlands had never truly merged. When Belgians revolted, European powers recognized their independence.
  • Romanticism in Art

    Romanticism in Art
    Eugene Delacroix employed theatricality and movement, as well as bright, symbolic colors. One of his most famous pieces is Liberty Leading the People, a depiction of the French Revolution.
  • The Reform Act

    The Reform Act
    This Act in Britain recognized the change the Industrial Revolution had brought. It favored the upper middle class, but brought new representation to others.
  • Fourier Socialism

    Fourier Socialism
    Charles Fourier proposed small, model communities called phalansteries. People would live and work together for everyone's benefit.
  • Female Support of Socialism

    Female Support of Socialism
    Flora Tristan combined socialism and feminism. She saw absolute equality as the only hope for women.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    Repeal of the Corn Laws
    This served two purposes. One was to lower the price of bread for commoners, the other was to reinforce free trade.
  • Owen Socialism

    Owen Socialism
    Robert Owen was a British cotton manufacturer. He set up a successful self-contained community in New Lanark, Scotland, and a failed one in New Harmony, Indiana.
  • Political Liberalism

    Political Liberalism
    Political liberalism is the idea that individual freedoms should be protected. In his book On Liberty, John Stuart Mill said that freedom of opinion should be protected from the government.
  • Women's Rights According to Liberalism

    Women's Rights According to Liberalism
    John Stuart Mill also published On the Subjection of Women. In this book, he supported women's rights and claimed that subordination to another sex is wrong.
  • Blanc Socialism

    Blanc Socialism
    Louis Blanc published The Organization of Work. He claimed that social problems could be solved with government assistance.