Mussolini and Fascist Italy

  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    The Risorgimento nationalist movement was successful in creating a unified and independent Italy after many years of struggling against the Austrian Empire. However, the Catholic Church had own separate state in Rome and areas around. Although Italy gained it's independence from the Austrian Empire, they still remained a divided nation (many ways). This map shows the progression of Italy and it's steps to becoming an independent state in 1861. It also shows how Italy's land altered after 1861.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    In 1870,the Papal states were officially a part of Italy's Kingdom which the incorporation of the papal states resulted in Catholic hostility against the new Italian kingdom- lasting into the early 20th century. The two maps show the change in Italy's kingdom after papal states were annexed to Italy in 1870.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia which it originated from the disputed Treaty of Wuchale. Ethiopians were superior in comparison to Italy,as they were well-armed and aided by Russia; therefore, they defeated Italy in the Battle of Adwa. The image represents the devastating defeat of Italy as the hand (Ethiopia) easily knocks down its opponent.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    In aim to increase the size of the Italian empire and to essentially block growing French influence in North Africa, Italy invaded Libya which was a Turkish colony. Libya then accepted their losses in 1912. This map demonstrates Italian landings in Libya which further shows Italy's increase in power as they gained much territorial land.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    When Mussolini was involved with the socialist party, he opposed militarism/Italian imperialism and supported international solidarity. He was arrested for attempting to provoke an insurrection in protest against the war; however, on his release he became editor of the Socialist Party’s newspaper Avanti, advocating revolutionary violence against liberal state and helped expel pro-royalists from Socialist Party. This image identifies a copy of the newspaper used to spread his ideas.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    Mussolini was kicked out of Socialist Party due to his shift towards an extreme nationalist position, advocating Italian involvement in the war. This resulted in the formation of his own newspaper, Il Popolo d’Italia (‘The People of Italy’) to avocation favor of war. This image shows the development of the Popolo d’Italia and his shift in ideology
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    Italy signed the Treaty of London to which they promised to they promised to join the side of the Triple Entente. Italy was not given what was promised in the Treaty of London. The map shows a visual representation of the land that was promised in the Treaty of London. This also identifies the land that Vittorio Orlando demanded as well as port of Fiume and German colonies in Africa.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    Due to the rise in unemployment, industrial workers began a
    wave of militant action. The ‘two red years’ consisted of strikes, factory, occupations and land occupations, organised by trade unions and peasant leagues. The image shows mass factory occupations which brought attention to the increase in unemployment and political instability.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D’Annunzio led 2000 armed men
    to the city of Fiume in 1919 which was significant as Fiume was an area that Italy sought but did not gain in the peace treaties. They ruled this city for 15 months to which D’Annunzio's actions inspired Mussolini as he adopted D’Annunzio's theatrical trappings. This image shows the inspiration Mussolini had from Gabriele D’Annunzio as he later adopted some of his tactics in the future.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    118 people that represented various political groupings, met in Milan and formed a Fascio di Combattimentoto to bring together nationalists and socialists, as well as a militant-sounding Fascist Programme in 1919, which combined various left- and right-wing demands. These nationalist were united by hatred of the liberal state. This image represents the fasci symbol showing a bundle of sticks featuring an axe, portraying the idea of power over life and death.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini resigned from the Fascist Central Committee which he successfully outmaneuver the ras/ persuaded members of the Fasci di Combattimento to re-form the organisation into political party, Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF). He then persuaded the Fascist National Congress to elect him as leader and promised to end the truce with the socialists in return. The image shows the PNF symbol and Mussolini side by side, portraying the impact that Mussolini had in bringing fascist ideologies in Italy
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    Because the ras wanted to move from local to national power, local fascist leaders took over various towns and regions. Their 'March on Rome' led to Mussolini being Prime Minister as the king refused to arrest him and refused to authorize Martial Law. This image emphasizes the importance of the March on Rome as it resulted in the King appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister.
  • Mussolini forms National Bloc electoral alliance with Giolitti

     Mussolini forms National Bloc  electoral alliance with Giolitti
    Mussolini privately reassured Giolitti as well as other liberal politicians a fascist revolution should not be taken serious. This resulted in Giolitti offering the fascists electoral alliance which was essentially an anti-socialist National Bloc.This image shows the opposite reaction Mussolini and Giolitti had since Mussolini was pleased as he received 7% of the vote and had taken 35 seats. On the other hand, Giolitti was disappointed by the results as socialist remained the largest party
  • Acerbo Law Passed

    Acerbo Law Passed
    With the intention of reforming the electoral system in a way that he hoped would strengthen his status, Giacomo Acerbo, outlined a new electoral law that gave the party that won the most votes two-thirds of the seats in parliament if the percentage was no less than 25% of the votes This image is a image of Giacomo Acerbo as he his the one who outlined the law which resulted in fascists in the 535-seat chamber rose from 35 to 374
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    When an Italian general was murdered on Greek soil while making maps, Mussolini demand that Greece pay 50 million
    lire and apologize. The Greeks refused to pay and Mussolini ordered Italian marines to invade Corfu. The Greek government then paid the fine. This image of superman shows the view that many Italians had on Mussolini after the incident as he was viewed as a national hero.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    In 1924, a group of politicians boycotted parliament in protest which was under leadership of the liberal, Giovanni Amendola. The aim of the Aventine Secession was to force the king to dismiss Mussolini. This image shows Matteotti’s body being carried out shows the cause reason of the Aventine Secession taking place. It emphasizes the want of dismissing Mussolini that many had as Matteotti was a well respected socialist.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Giacomo Matteotti, a respected socialist, spoke against the fascist violence and corruption that had occurred during the election. On June 10 1924, he was abducted in Rome and it was assumed that the Dumini’s fascist thugs murdered him to which caused Mussolini's downfall as many now distanced themselves from his regime. The political cartoon shows Mussolini sitting on Matteotti's coffin, representing Mussolini's frustration as many looked down on him to which ruined his reputation.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    Due to poor harvest and a consequent increase in grain imports, Mussolini created the battle for grain to get Italian farmers to grow more cereals, especially wheat, in order to reduce Italy’s dependence on foreign imports. This image shows Mussolini encouraging harvesters at Aprilla as he desired in economic greatness
  • The Locarno Treaty signed

    The Locarno Treaty signed
    The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland. The treaty essentially guaranteed Germany's western frontier, which the bordering states of France, Germany, and Belgium pledged to treat as inviolable.Italy and Britain were committed to help to repel any armed aggression across the frontier. The cartoon simply shows those that were in agreement of the trety
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    The Battle for Land was an attempt to increase the amount of available farmland. Marshes and swamps were drained to which many small farms were established and employment increased.The battle for the Lira occurred as the value of the Italian currency dropped. Mussolini artificially rose the value of the lira, resulting in declining exports increased unemployment (started a recession in Italy).This image portrays civilians working to establish more land under Mussolini's battle for land
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    In attempt of increasing Italy's population, Mussolini's fascist party provided maternity benefits, gave fathers jobs, placed a taxation policy, and encouraged women not to work. This attempt was made to develop a large further military to expand Italy's Empire. This attempt was unsuccessful as birth rate decreased and more women were working in the workforce. This image is significant as it shows Mussolini's large family which was used to encourage others in forming a larger family(propaganda)
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference was held in Munich to which Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia such as Sudetenland. This agreement was made in response to fear of the war that was threatened by Adolf Hitler. The political cartoon shows the quick decision made from fear and Stalin not being invited to the agreement when dividing Czechoslovakia
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    The Kellogg-Briand Treaty was an international agreement that states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature". This pact failed as it was never enforced. The picture demonstrates US Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg signing the pact as well as other leaders, portraying the attempt to eliminate war.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Within the Lateran Treaty with Pope, the government accepted
    papal sovereignty over Vatican City, which then became an independent state. In return of this sovereignty, the pope officially recognized the Italian state, and its possession of
    Rome and the former papal states.This image portrays Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri signing the Lateran Treaty, which ended the conflict that between the papacy and the Italian State.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    The Stresa front was an agreement between Britain, France, and Italy that was made in Stresa Italy. This plan was anti- German as it formalized opposition to German rearmament. This political cartoon shows Hitler facing away as the others (Britain, France, and Italy) oppose Germany's rearmament. Portrays Germany as isolated from the rest of the world
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935 which was between the Italian colonies of Eritrea and Somaliland. During this crisis, Mussolini sent 500,000 troops, who used advanced forms of weapons such as tanks, bombers and poison gas against people often only armed with spears. Abyssinia then appealed to the League of Nations.The league of nation imposed economic sanctions on Italy. The image of oil represents the limited sanctions as the league did not ban Italy from exporting oil/ using the Suez Canal.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    Within the Spanish Civil war, 3000+ Italian anti-fascist volunteers fought on the the Republican government's side against Franco’s forces (included troops sent by Mussolini). The aim was to support the nationalist cause against the 2nd Spanish Republic which Italy provided many weapons to nationalists. The image is a Republican poster, "The claw of the Italian invader intends to enslave us." This shows that Italy had no place in joining the war (Abyssinia gave them the confidence to join)
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    The Rome-Berlin Axis Treatywas an agreement between Italy and Germany that linked the two countries together (politically and militarily) to which they agreed to their opposition against the allies. The image of Hitler and Mussolini shows the close connection that bother have with one another which their connection grew with the signing of the Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    The Italian invasion of Albania was a result from Mussolini's imperialistic policies as Adolf Hitler had been upstaging him. Mussolini wanted to remain a great power and Albania was defeated as their ruler was forced into exile. This image shows the power that Italy had over Albania as Albania was defeated very quickly and easily
  • Italy enters WW II on side of Germany

    Italy enters WW II on side of Germany
    Italy joined the Axis Powers in aim to take French and British colonies. This entry into war resulted in an increase in opposition towards Mussolini, and his downfall in 1943 as Italy's economic and industrial weaknesses increased. The image shows Mussolini and Hitler next to one another which portrays the connection that both have to one another as they share similar ideals. (Hitler's inspiration came from Mussolini)
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    The military setbacks resulted in the Fascist Grand Council voting Mussolini from power in 1943. The king then officially ordered Mussolini to resign and Mussolini was arrested. The image sows a primary source as it is a newspaper during the time of Mussolini's arrest. This shows the impact that the coup had on Mussolini's ruling as he was eaily overthrown.
  • Mussolini Killed

    Mussolini Killed
    As Mussolini tried to flee with the Germans, they were recognized by a group of Italian partisans and arrested on 27 April. He was then taken by another group of partisans that was communist led, which he and his mistress were both shot and killed. This image shows Mussolini and 15 other fascist leaders and ministers being hung which portrays the hate that many had towards Mussolini and his fascist view.