MSE timeline

Timeline created by MSETIMELINE2020
In Music
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    Utilitarian Music

    -Spanish conquistadors imported teachers to indoctrinate natives of modern-day Mexico into European values
    -Indoctrination was done through music education
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    Pilgrims and Puritans

    -Emigrants from England traveled to the new world in order to freely express religion without persecution
    -Emigrants brought songs and hymns used for worship
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    Massachusetts School Laws

    -The colony of Massachusetts established laws requiring schools and education programs in towns containing 50 families
    -Music was not considered a required subject to teach
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    Lack of Music Training

    Reverend Thomas Walter of Roxbury, Massachusetts:
    -Complained of awful singing in the church among congregations -Many people did not know how to properly sing or understand music
    -Music was "taught" orally
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    Music Masters

    -Music instructors traveled all over the eastern coast
    -Taught families and churches how to properly sing music
    -This event was extremely popular and successful in improving musicality in churches
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    Music in Public Schools

    Lowell Mason:
    -Persuaded the Boston School Committee that music should be an included subject in public schools
    -Believed that music improved recreation, worship and discipline
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    Aesthetic Music

    Lowell Mason:
    -Persuaded Boston School Committee to adopt music as a curricular subject
    -Pushed for aesthetic value of music education (music for music's sake)
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    Expansion of Music in Schools

    Friedrich Froebel, John Dewey and Maria Montessori:
    -Created works that were friendly for children to use and helped expand the fine arts education
    -Instrumental music, music appreciation, literature, history and theory were added as part of music curricula nationwide
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    Music Conformity

    -School superintendents favored "scientific management" in schools and micromanaged all subjects in schools
    -Music educators had very little freedom in successfully teaching their students while maintaining national standards
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    Lack of Cultural Music in Schools

    -Many music programs considered Western European music to be the highest level of cultured music to teach
    -Students in music classes came from all ethnicities
    -Other cultures' music besides European weren't considered appropriate for the classroom
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    Why Teach Music?

    Samuel Cole of New England Conservatory:
    -Announced music should be taught for the sake of music and not for the sake of having talented musicians
    -People learning music should love to learn it and not just be good at it
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    Education Reform

    -The American education system was constantly changing in order to correct the poor level of education that students were receiving
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    Education in the 1950's

    -The Space Race was a pivotal moment for the US and showed in every aspect of American society Vice Admiral Hyman G. Rickover of the US Navy submarine program:
    -Advocated for heavy math and science in schools and less with the arts and extracurricular activities
    -Other influential people of power such as Dr. James Bryant Conant of Harvard also pushed for bulkier math and science classes in public schools.
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    Philosophy and Psychology

    -Philosophies of aesthetic education and cognitive psychology developed
    -Philosophers worked to relate aesthetic philosophy to music curriculum
    -Both philosophies helped music educators build strong arguments for curricular acceptance in schools
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    Shift From Utilitarian Belief to an Aesthetic Philosophy

    -Nationwide concern for quality for education put less focus on music
    -Music educators had to be involved in reform for music ed to last
    -Progressive education lost relevance
    -Music was operating isolated instead of under a set curriculum
    -Music educators advocated the need for music in schools outside of utilitarian uses
    -Allen Britton was one of the first people to push for aesthetic music ed
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    Reform Committee

    -The National Advisory Committee of Education was founded in order to address problems and provide solutions in education
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    Two Books That Helped Launch the Contemporary Period of Music Education

    -MENC funded a commission on basic concepts that defined a solid philosophical foundation for music ed
    -Book was published in 1958 and titled, "Basic Concepts in Music Education"
    -Cited historical justification for music and criticized utilitarian reasons for music
    -Many music educators did not know the history of music -Charles Leonhard and Robert House wrote and published, "Foundations and Principles of Music Education" in 1959
    -Introduced a seminal view of music education
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    Educational Funding

    The Federal Office of Education:
    -Funded approximately $10 million per year towards 407 research projects
    -These projects were conducted to improve science education in schools
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    The Contemporary Music Project

    -Ford Foundation explores relationship between the arts and society
    -Beginning of philanthropic institutions wanting to improve careers of artists on a national scale
    -The Young Composers Project was founded by Norman DeJoio
    -Intended to benefit composers and school music programs
    -Wanted students to respect contemporary and historical music
    -31 composers participated in YCP
    -Music programs and students in them were unprepared to handle contemporary music
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    Woods Hole Conference

    -This pivotal conference had a large gathering of people with many different and distinguishing titles
    -The US government, scientists, historians, physicists, psychologists, biologists, educators and mathematicians were involved
    -Gathered to discuss the issues with science education
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    A Balanced Approach to Education

    The American Association of School Administrators (AASA):
    -Recommended a more balanced education in American public schools that included more of the arts
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    Music Popularity

    -Broadcasting channels gave easy access to music throughout the early 20th century and up to present day
    -A "pop culture" was born in music, and made certain songs and genres desirable to the public
    -Pop music influenced what kind of music would be taught in music classes
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    Educational Funding

    The National Science Foundation:
    -Granted $159 million to improve science education
    -$34 million of the grant was used to fund teacher-improvement institutes
    -In 1961, over half of all funds and grants donated by large foundations were used toward educational improvement
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    A Period of Decline in Music Education

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    The Contemporary Music Project

    -Ford Foundation accepts MENC's proposal and in awarded $1.3 million to organize Contemporary Music Project for Creativity in Music Education (CMP)
    -Teachers show students how to freestyle and rearrange music in order to compose a piece
    -An experiment was conducted to provide creativity in composition not knowledge of music theory or harmony
    -Comprehensive musicianship seminar was held at Northwestern University
    -46 more composers matched with public school systems
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    The Yale Seminar on Music Education

    -The purpose of the seminar was to identify and address problems facing music in American schools
    -Claude V. Palisca, porfessor of music at Yale University was the director
    -Of the 31 participants only 5 were actively involved in music within schools, the rest were performers, composers, musicologists and administrators
    -The conclusion of the seminar held a negative and condescending view of music ed in schools despite their solutions already being used in schools and showing no positive results
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    After the Yale Seminar

    -Yale seminar was not supported by MENC
    -Yale University didn't have a music program so it couldn't take the lead in implementing the seminar's recommendations
    -Received little publicity
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    Project on Instruction

    National Education Association:
    -Sponsored event in hopes of taking skills of reading, composition, listening, speaking, and creative/disciplined thinking to understand the humanities and the arts
    -Social sciences, natural sciences, literature, music, and visual arts began to grow
    -Hoped to further legitimatize music instruction into the normal curriculum
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    Theories of Multiple Intelligences

    Philip Phoenix
    -Proposed that music is one of six intelligences Paul Hirst:
    -Seven forms of knowledge
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    The Juilliard Repertory Project

    -Vitorio Giannini as project director
    -Highest quality music provided to k-6 students
    -Giannini appointed a panel of music professionals to build the Juilliard music library
    -Fulfilled the recommendations of high quality music for students as proposed by the Yale seminar but didn't many music educators
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    The Tanglewood Symposium

    -Sponsored by MENC, Berkshire Music Center, Theodore Presser Foundation and Boston University School of Fine and Applied Arts
    -Defined role of music education in America's continuously evolving society
    -Pluralistic view of music education
    -Played a major role in the evolution of American music education and ways to stay relevant in an ever-changing society
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    The Contemporary Music Project

    -$1.34 million awarded to MENC to extend CMP
    -CMP introduced three programs that educated teachers of philosophy, materials, and methods of the organization
    -CMP's purpose for music education was fulfilled by the end of the year
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    Project Zero

    Nelson Goodman:
    -Founded Project Zero at Harvard University
    -Artistic and aesthetic development of children
    -Aesthetic perception of works of art
    -Problem solving and creation in the arts
    -Practical problems of curriculum construction evaluation
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    The Goals and Objectives Project (GO)

    -Paul Lehman of University of Michigan led the project
    -Identified areas of responsibility to which goals would be assigned
    -Changed the face of music education and provided effective leadership
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    1970's Music Education

    -Decline of ed continued
    -High oil prices severely affected global economy, and inflation hampered local school districts in maintaining adequate funding levels
    -States were unable to compensate for shortages school districts faced
    -End of the period of generous government-supported education research and development
    -School enrollments declined and fewer teachers were needed due to baby boomers graduating
    -Confidence and Security in nation's schooling dropped
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    1970's Music Education

    -Demands for reform heard from educators, business, industry, military, and general public
    -Need for reform
    -Back-to-basics movement intended to strengthen core subjects, eliminate frills, and produce rigorous learning and teaching standards
    -Educational decline continued
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    Bennett Reimer's "A Philosophy of Music Education"

    -Influenced the music education profession
    -Aesthetic music education was widely accepted because of the book
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    The Development of Professional Standards

    -NCI published a study and manifesto that spelled out all standards requred for music education
    -MENC was called to action in this report to provide leadership and high-quality music programs in schools
    -The report describes the ideal school music program
    -Second edition released in 1986 describing goals for music ed in the 1990's
    -By 1988 MENC knew that the new goals could not be met
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    School Music Program: Description and Standards

    -Published by National Commission on Instruction
    -Response to recommendations provided by Tanglewood symposium
    -Second edition released in 1986 for the 1990's
    -Every student would have access to music education in schools
    -MENC couldn't control national economic conditions, teaching certification requirements, or college or school curricula
    -Outlined important objectives for the future of music education
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    The 1980's

    -SAT score plunged to an all-time low
    -The education crisis from Sputnik was continuing unresolved
    -Federal government couldn't step in to improve American education
    -National standards were impossible to implement
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    National Education Reports for Music Education

    -Arts educators were upset that academic reports and studies such as "A Nation at Risk" didn't consider the arts as a fundamental subject to be taught in schools.
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    Attempting to Fix Education

    Diane Ravitch:
    -Warned educators of the ineffective methods that were meant to improve educational standards
    -Pushed heavily for an equal opportunity movement that would lower the unrealistic expectations of demanding schools to juggle the impossible
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    The President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities:
    -Founded in 1982 and still used today
    -Used help incorporate the arts in white house objectives as well as strengthen the arts as a whole
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    A Nation at Risk

    -A report was written and released by a national board that observed the problems in education and propositions to fix it
    -Showed how academic standards in other countries far surpassed America
    -Advocated for the inclusion of the Arts in elementary and middle schools
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    College Board Study

    -A report of test scores across the nation was released to show what needed to be improved in American education
    -This study pushed for the Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, English and Foreign Language to be instilled as required base subjects to be taught in class
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    The Carnegie Foundation

    -Written by Ernest Boyer
    -This report advocated for the required curriculum of the first two years of high school be full of fundamental course subjects including the arts
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    Arts PROPEL

    -Directed by Howard Gardner
    -Production, perception, reflection
    -Process folios are key components of instruction, similar to academic standards, keep track of a student's work
    -A hands-on approach to music similar to how professionals would tackle music -Getty Center for Education in the Arts published "Beyond Creating"
    -Recommended discipline-based art education (DBAE)
    -Knowing how, knowing about, knowing why, knowing of and within
    -Intended to expand traditional assessment practices
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    The 1990's

    -The high school dropout rate remained over 25%
    -American graduates suffered greatly when released out into adulthood
    -The federal government reignited its involvement with educational programs by improving national standards
    -Educators understood that there was something lacking in American education but didn't know how to fix it
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    Emergence of Praxial Philosophy

    David Elliott:
    -founded praxialism
    -Praxialism challenged the aesthetic basis of music education, claimed music is a human activity rather than an aesthetic object Christopher Small:
    -music is not an independent identity
    -music or "musicking" is a verb and a set of relationships Wayne Bowman:
    -Music is relative to the ways it serves human living
    -Music is situational and needs constant critical reassessment
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    International Pursuit of Music Education

    -J. Terry Gates and Thomas Regelski founded the MayDay Group, an independent group that spoke of the philosophical issues of music ed
    -Advocated for critical thinking and theory on the purposes and practices of music ed -"Philosophy of Music Education Review" was published
    -Debate forum that allow music ed philosophers to branch out on related subjects to music ed -MENC established the Philosophy of Music Education Special Research Group (SRIG)
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    Cognitive Psychology Supports Music Education

    -Hernstein and Murray published "The Bell Curve"
    -Raised awareness of issues with intelligence testing
    -IQ tests only measure intelligences that rely on verbal and quantitative abilities
    -IQ tests do not measure musical intelligence
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    The Housewright Symposium

    -Named after Wiley Housewright, dean of FSU School of Music
    -Intended to be an updated version of Tanglewood Symposium
    -Answered six major questions involving music
    -Michael L. Mark wrote a paper that represented the thought process of different music educators
    -MENC didn't follow through with the paper or the symposium
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    the Partnership for 21st Century Skills

    -P21 was founded to increase academic readiness for students in the twenty-first century
    -Identifies required core curriculum that is mandatory to prepare students to become effective adult citizens
    -The arts are recognized as one of the required courses
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    National Standards for Arts Education

    -"The Goals 2000: Educate America Act" was published
    -Advanced national music standards
    -Grouped into three grade levels (k-4) (5-8) (9-12)
    -Students were required to show proficiency in one of the art forms (dance, theater, music, visual arts)
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    Centennial Congress of the Music Educators National Conference

    -MENC celebrated 100th anniversary of centennial congress
    -No significant advancements for music education occurred
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    The Lincoln Center's Imagination Conversations

    -This organization worked on spreading awareness of how important imagination is in students
    -Used arts and humanities professionals as examples of how important imagination is needed throughout adulthood
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    The National Coalition for Core Arts Standards

    -NCCAS released new fine arts standards
    -First refreshment of standards since 1994
    -Standards are based on k-12 and higher education data, international standards, child development in relation with the arts, college-level arts standards, and 21st-century skills gap analysis
    -Standards are written by grade rather than grade groups
    -Designed to prepare students for college