Module 1: History of Special Education and Inclusive Education Timetoast Timeline

  • Brown V. Board of Education

    Brown V. Board of Education
    In 1954, segregation was the way of the world with separate schools, restaurants, and buses for colored people. This ruling helped people who were seen as “different” gain an edge in life, it paved a whole new path for those that wanted equality in other aspects of life, too, like children with special needs and the need for special education programs within America’s schools (Dalien, 2020).
  • Special Education Happened at Home

    Special Education Happened at Home
    In the early part of the 20th century, children with disabilities including those with speech delays, cognitive or physical disabilities, and deafness, among other disabilities often received their education at home or not at all. By the 1970s, very few special needs students were enrolled in public schools. This was due to the lack of trained teachers and infrastructure to educate students with disabilities in public schools (The history of special education in the U.S. n.d.).
  • PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    The Arc of Philadelphia provides direct representation of families with children with disabilities to help ensure that they are receiving the proper supports and services in school. This includes attending IEP meetings, helping families request evaluations, and providing resources and advice. The Arc of Philadelphia works with relevant stakeholders, such as school officials, legislators, and other agencies to work toward these changes (The arc of Philadelphia n.d.).
  • Title IX regulation

    Title IX regulation
    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in educational institutions that receive federal funding. Department of Education have given it a broad scope covering sexual harassment and sexual violence. Under Title IX, schools are legally required to respond and remedy hostile educational environments and failure to do so is a violation that means a school could risk losing its federal funding (Title IX).
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) law was passed that recognized the need for special education services for those who were diagnosed with learning disabilities (Dalien, 2020).
  • What is least restrictive environment (LRE)

    What is least restrictive environment (LRE)
    Least restrictive environment (LRE) means kids who get special education should be in the same classrooms as other kids as much as possible. LRE is not a place, it is a principle that guides a child’s education program. The LRE for each child may look different because kids are unique (What is least restrictive environment? N.d.).
  • Public Law 94-142/Disabilities Education Act

    Public Law 94-142/Disabilities Education Act
    The law was reauthorized in 1990 and again in 1997 and eventually changed to the more suitably named Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). With the invention of the law, millions of children that were previously denied access to quality education were now folded into the fray and welcomed to learn despite their learning disabilities or other special needs (Dalien, 2020).
  • Independent Living Movement

    Independent Living Movement
    The Independent Living (IL) movement started in the early 70s when the Berkeley Center for Independent Living in California was founded by Ed Roberts and others with disabilities who were attending the University of California at Berkeley. The Center focused on assisting people with disabilities to live in the community with whatever supports they needed (The history of Independent Living Movement - NILP 2022).
  • No child left behind

    No child left behind
    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was the main law for K–12 general education in the United States from 2002–2015. The law held schools accountable for how kids learned and achieved. The law was controversial in part because it penalized schools that didn’t show improvement. It updated the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The law applied to all K–12 public schools in the United States (What is no child left behind (NCLB)? N.d.).
  • IDEA

    Congress reauthorized the IDEA in 2004 and most recently amended the IDEA through Public Law 114-95, the Every Student Succeeds Act, in December 2015. Improving educational results for children with disabilities is an essential element of our national policy of ensuring equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities (About idea 2022).