Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching

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    Grammar-Translation Method

    Exhaustive use of dictionaries, explanations of grammatical rules (in English), some sample sentences, and exercise drills to practice the new structures. Little opportunity for real second-language acquisition.
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    Cognitive Approach

    Includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Oral communicative competence is the focus. Comprehensible auditory input is important as well as speaking in the target language. Learning about the language is overemphasized.
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    Audio-Lingüal Method

    The language learner hears and mimics native speakers on reel-to-reel audio tapes, often used with earphones in a language lab setting. Lessons often begin with a sample dialogue to be recited and memorized. This is followed up with substitution pattern and saturation drills in which the grammatical structure previously introduced is reinforced, with emphasis given to rapid fire student response. Uses repetition, substitution, transformation, and translation.
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    The Natural/Communicative Approach

    Focuses on three stages: aural comprehension, early speech production, and speech activities, all fostering "natural" language acquisition, much as a child would learn his/her native tongue. Following an initial "silent period", comprehension should precede production in speech, as the latter should be allowed to emerge in natural stages or progressions. Lowering of the Affective Filter is important. Only the target language is used in class.
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    Total Physical Response

    In this approach, both language and body movement are synchronized through action responses and use of the imperative (direct commands). Kinetic movement of the body is incorporated, especially of the hands and arms.
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    The Silent Way

    In this method, the teacher remains silent while pupils output the language on cue through perpetual prompting. Students are encouraged to self-correct their pronunciation errors through manual gesticulation on the part of the instructor. Modeling of correct pronunciation for students is discouraged. The greatest strength of this method lies in its ability to draw students out orally, while the teacher "takes a back seat". This method works most effectively with cooperative learning.
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    Suggestopedia

    Classes are small and intensive, with a low-stress focus. Material is presented in an especially melodic and artistic way. By activating the right "creative side" of the brain, a much larger portion of the intellectual potential can be tapped, thus drawing out long-term memory. This innovative approach to language pedagogy maximizes the learners' natural holistic talents. Background classical or baroque chamber music, oftentimes accompanied with soft lights, pillows or cushions on the floor.
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    Communicative Language Learning

    This method is designed to ease the learner into gradual independence and self-confidence in the target language. It encourages holistic learning, personal growth, and self-development. Learning a language is not viewed necessarily as an individual accomplishment, but rather as a collective experience, something to be disseminated out into the community at large at a later stage in the second-language acquisition process. SARD (Security, Attention, Retention, Denotes discrimation).
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    The Direct Method

    Using the target language is the major priority in this method. Grammar learning is inductive in nature without overt explanations given to the pupils. Teacher/student interaction is important as well as guessing of context or content, completing fill-ins, and doing “cloze” exercises. Accuracy in pronunciation and oral expression are vital.