Linea del Tiempo de la Computadora

Timeline created by jesuantana
  • 2,300 BCE

    Abacus

    Abacus
    Various forms date
    back to 2300 BC
  • 1600s: Mechanical Calculating Machines

    1600s: Mechanical Calculating Machines
    1610: Wilhelm
    Schickard’s calculating
    machine
  • 1642

    1642
    1642: Blaise Pascal’s
    Pascaline
  • 1694

    1694
    1694: Gottfried
    Leibniz’s mechanical
    calculator
  • Mid 1800s: Ada Lovelace

    Mid 1800s: Ada Lovelace
    Ada Lovelace, daughter of the
    poet Lord Byron, worked with
    Babbage on the Analytical Engine
    Programmed Analytical Engine
    using punched cards
    Considered first computer
    programmer
  • 1801: Jacquard Loom

    1801: Jacquard Loom
    Joseph Jacquard invents loom
    that is “programmed” using
    punched cards
  • 1860s: Babbage’s Engines

    1860s: Babbage’s Engines
    Charles Babbage invents (but never completely builds) two machines:
  • 1890: Hollerith’s Census Machines

    1890: Hollerith’s Census Machines
    Herman Hollerith developed a
    machine for tabulating US
    census which used punched
    cards
    1880 census took 8 years to
    tabulate
    1890 census took 1 year
  • 1936: Turing Machine

    1936: Turing Machine
    Alan Turing, considered the
    father of computer science,
    described a theoretical device
    called the Turing machine or
    “a-machine”. Formalized the
    concepts of computation and
    algorithms
  • 1939: Atanasoff-Berry Computer

    1939: Atanasoff-Berry Computer
    Considered first fully
    electronic digital computing
    device, but was not
    programmable or fully
    functiona
  • 1944: Harvard Mark I

    1944: Harvard Mark I
    Howard Aiken designs
    Mark I, the first
    operational generalpurpose electromechanical computer.
    Financed and built at IBM
  • 1946: ENIAC

    1946: ENIAC
    John Mauchley and Presper
    Eckert complete the Electronic
    Numerical Integrator and
    Calculator (ENIAC) at Univ of
    Pennsylvania. Much based on
    Atanasoff’s ABC
    First general purpose, digital
    electronic computer
  • 1947: Computer Bug

    1947: Computer Bug
    Computer operators
    working with Grace Murray
    Hopper on Harvard’s Mark
    II computer discover a
    “bug”, a moth lodged in the
    components, and paste it
    into the computer’s logbook
    which now resides in
    Smithsonian
  • 1947: Transistor

    1947: Transistor
    Bell Labs develops the
    transistor (right), an
    electronic switch made with a
    small piece of silicon with
    added impurities. It’s smaller,
    uses less power, more
    reliable, and cheaper to
    produce than vacuum tubes
    (left)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Triody_var.jpg
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:
  • 1951: UNIVAC I

    1951: UNIVAC I
    UNIVersal Automatic Computer
    I (UNIVAC I), designed
    principally by Eckert and
    Mauchly, is the first
    commercially successful
    computer
    Price: $1.25M - $1.5M
    Units Produced: 46
  • 1954: FORTRAN

    1954: FORTRAN
    John Backus and IBM
    develop FORTRAN, the first
    successful high-level
    programming language and
    compiler
    Designed for scientific
    problems and still widely used
    today
  • 1955: Logic Theorist

    1955: Logic Theorist
    The first artificial intelligence
    program written by Allen
    Newell, Herbert Simon and J. C.
    Shaw mimicked the problem solving
    skills of a human by proving math
    theorems
    The term artificial intelligence (AI)
    would be coined in 1956 at the
    Dartmouth summer research project
    on artificial intelligence
  • 1958: Integrated Circuit

    1958: Integrated Circuit
    Integrated circuits (chips)
    independently co-invented by
    Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments
    and Robert Noyce of Fairchild
    Semiconductor
    Transistors, and other electronic
    components all fabricated on
    single chip of silicon
  • 1962: Spacewar!

    1962: Spacewar!
    Spacewar! is the first
    computer game, written by
    Steve Russell (from MIT) and
    his small team for the PDP-1
    computer
  • 1965: Moore’s Law

    1965: Moore’s Law
    Gordon Moore, a cofounder of Intel, predicts that
    the number of transistors
    which can be placed on a
    single chip will double every
    year. The prediction was
    later modified to every 2
    years, but it has held steady
    and was dubbed “Moore’s
    Law” around 1970
  • 1969: ARPANET

    1969: ARPANET
    ARPANET, which eventually
    becomes the Internet, goes
    online with 4 nodes.
    Department of Defense
    sponsors ARPA (Advanced
    Research Projects Agency) to
    build a robust interconnected
    network of geographically
    distant computers
  • 1971: Microprocessor

    1971: Microprocessor
    Microprocessor: entire CPU
    fits on a single chip. Three
    companies developed the
    microprocessor independently
    at the same time: Texas
    Instruments, Intel, and Garrett
    AiResearch
  • 1977: Apple II Personal Computer

    1977: Apple II Personal Computer
    Apple II, designed primarily by
    Steve Wozniak, was the first
    highly successful, massproduced personal
    computers (PCs)
    Price: $1300 for model with 4
    KB RAM, $2600 for 48 KB RAM
    model
  • 1978: Spam!

    1978: Spam!
    Gary Thuerk, an aggressive
    DEC marketer, attempted to
    send the first commercial
    spam message to every
    Arpanet address on the west
    coast (393 recipients)
  • 1981: IBM Personal Computer

    1981: IBM Personal Computer
    IBM develops a PC with
    an Intel microprocessor
    and Microsoft’s DOS
    operating system
    Price started at $1,565
    300,000 sold in 1981;
    3,274,000 sold in 1982
  • 1982: Tron Movie

    1982: Tron Movie
    Disney’s Tron, a movie about the
    fictional world inside a computer, is
    the first major film to use extensive
    3D computer graphics
  • 1984: Apple’s Macintosh

    1984: Apple’s Macintosh
    Apple’s iconic 1984
    commercial promoting the
    Macintosh was the most
    expensive commercial ever
    produced at the time (about $1
    million) and played only once
    during the Super Bow
  • 1985-87: Therac-25

    1985-87: Therac-25
    Therac-25 provided
    radiation therapy to
    patients with cancer
    Several software bugs
    caused radiation
    overdoses leading to five
    deaths and other serious
    injuries
  • 1990: World Wide Web

    1990: World Wide Web
    Tim Berners-Lee at CERN
    develops the WWW, a global
    web of interconnected
    documents, which runs on top
    of the Internet
    The Web would become
    popular several years later
    when Netscape develops an
    easy-to-use web browser
  • 1992: Microsoft Windows

    1992: Microsoft Windows
    Microsoft (Bill Gates) releases
    Windows 3.1, the first version
    of Windows that was widely
    successful
  • 1997: Deep Blue

    1997: Deep Blue
    IBM's Deep Blue
    computer defeats world
    chess champion Garry
    Kasparov in their second
    six-game showdown,
    becoming the first
    computer system to defeat
    a reigning world champion
    under standard chess
    tournament time controls
  • 1998: Google

    1998: Google
    Ph.D. students Larry Page and
    Sergey Brin drop out of
    Stanford to create Google, a
    Web search engine which uses
    their novel PageRank algorithm
    to order search engine results
    Google originated from a
    misspelling of googol which is 1
    followed by 100 zeros
  • 200x: Online Social Networks

    200x: Online Social Networks
    Online social networks (and sharing
    too much trivial information) first
    became popular in the early 2000s
    2002: Friendster created by
    Jonathan Abrams and Peter Chin
    2003: MySpace created by eUniverse
    employees
    2004: Facebook created by Mark
    Zuckerberg while a Harvard student
    2006: Twitter created by Jack Dorsey
  • 2003: Worms and Viruses

    The most devastating Internet worms and
    viruses (SQL Slammer, Sobig.F, Blaster) cause
    millions of dollars in damages to individuals and
    companies
  • 2005: Multi-core Processors

    2005: Multi-core Processors
    PCs with dual core CPUs hit
    the market. Multi-core CPUs
    have multiple processors on
    a single chip, and they allow
    more throughput with a lower
    processor speed, thus using
    less power
    Places more emphasis in
    parallel programming
  • 2007: iPhone

    2007: iPhone
    iPhone by Apple
    revolutionizes touch-screen
    interfaces for mobile devices
  • 2010: iPad

    2010: iPad
    iPad by Apple reinvigorates the tablet
    computing market
  • 2011: IBM’s Watson

    2011: IBM’s Watson
    IBM’s Watson defeats veteran Jeopardy champs
  • 2012: Google’s Driverless Car

    2012: Google’s Driverless Car
    Google is awarded the first self-driven car license in
    Nevada
  • 2013: Google Glass

    2013: Google Glass
    Wearable computers get lots of buzz
  • The Future?

    The Future?
    Smart clothing
    • Brain-powered prosthesis
    • Gesture recognition
    • Quantum computers
    • The Singularity?