The Sorrows of Young Werther is a heartbreaking narrative about a doomed love written by Romantic writer, John Wolfgang van Goethe
Reflections on the Revolutions in France
Written by English philosopher Edmund Burke who argued that for balance between liberty and order.
Frederick William IV's reign in Prussia
r. 1795-1861. the most intelligent and artistically talented Prussian monarch, he proved to be an erratic and unreliable leader during the German Revolution of 1848
Essay on the Principles of Population
Written by Thomas Malthus who argued that the population will outgrow the food supplies.
Robert Owen opened New Lanark
Robert Owen created a model industrial community in New Lanark, Scotland.
Britain's Act of Union
The Acts of Union 1800 were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Alexander I reign in Russia
r. 1801-1825. Formed the Holy Alliance, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, to prevent godless revolutions/wars
Congress of Vienna
A meeting between delegates to prevent future wars and maintain peace and stability in Europe
Louis XVIII's reign in France
Louis XVIII reigned for a little under a decade (1814-1824) for France
Concert of Europe
an alliance of European powers, GB, Prussia, Russia, Austria, and France, to maintain their power and oppose nationalistic movements
Britain's Corn Laws
enacted tariffs and trade restrictions on imported grain and food
Iron Law on Wages
Written by David Ricardo who argued that the wages will remain in a cycle of nature and that there should be no government interference with the economy.
Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle
the first of the four congresses held by Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France to discuss and take common action on European problems following the Napoleonic Wars
a novel written by English author Mary Shelley that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
Conservative restrictions introduced to the German States that restricted the freedoms of academics and press
took place at St Peter's Field, Manchester, Lancashire, England when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of the parliamentary representation
Congress of Troppau
a conference of the Quintuple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples
Congress of Laibach
the attempt of the Great Powers to settle international problems after the Napoleonic Wars through discussion and collective weight rather than on the battlefield.
written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, it is concerned with the torments of the Greek mythological figure Prometheus, who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity, for which he is subjected to eternal punishment and suffering at the hands of Zeus
Wars of independence from the Ottoman Turks by the Greek people with the help of European interference
Congress of Verona
the last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the terms of the Quadruple Alliance between Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain.
warning placed by President Monroe of the United States to European countries to keep them out of the Western Hemisphere
Charles X reign in France
Charles X, r. 1824-1830, attempted to restore the traditional ways of the monarchy and limit the spread of liberalism in France
Nicholas I reign in Russia
r.1825-1855. Cultivated an obsession in the Russian Military and died in the Crimean War
A revolt due to the fan-favorite son, Constantine, refusing to succeed Alexander I for the Russian throne.
Louis-Phillipe's reign in France
r.1830-1848 He was proclaimed the king of France after the forced abdication of the throne by his cousin, Charles X.
Young Germany Created
A nationalist group of young German writers
Louis XVIII, bourbon, was restored onto the throne of France after the reign of Napoleon
The insurrection that brought Louis-Phillipe onto the throne
First Belgian Revolution
Due to the rising nationalistic feelings of the Belgian people against the control of the Dutch
2nd French Revolution
AKA the July Revolutions, forcefully removed Charles X from the throne in favor for his cousin Louis-Philippe
Young Italy Created
A nationalistic group of Italian youths led by Giuseppe Mazzini
Britain's Reform Bill of 1832
Parliament passed the Reform Bill of 1832 to change the British electoral system to make it fair
The Zollverein Created
a coalition of German states to manage tariffs and economic policies
The People's Charter
called for reforms to make politics more democratic
Lora Tristan published Workers' Union
Called for workers to act through unions instead of violent acts
Ireland's Potato Famine
Famine crippled the Irish's potato crops, leaving millions to starve to death
A meeting where delegates of the German states attempted to unite the states
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that capitalism would destroy society and formed the basis for a communist/socialist ideology.
Second Belgian Revolution
Belgium successfully gained its independence from the Dutch
uprising staged by French workers in response to plans to close the National Workshops
Revolution in Italy
organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government.
Louis-Napoleon comes to power
r. 1850-1870. Napoleon III was elected president of the Second Republic. He served in that position until 1852 when he was made emperor—a position he held until 1870 when the disastrous Franco-Prussian War led to his capture.
a philosophical essay by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill that explains his idea of utilitarianism to society and state
Written by Karl Marx where he explained his theory on the capitalist system
3rd French Revolution
The 3rd Revolution was the adoption of a system of government in France in 1870