Interwar Years Timeline

By waredud
  • Hitler was born

    At 6:30 p.m. on the evening of April 20, 1889, Hitler was born in the small Austrian village of Braunau Am Inn just across the border from German Bavaria. Adolf Hitler would one day lead a movement that placed supreme importance on a person's family tree even making it a matter of life and death. However, his own family tree was quite mixed up and would be a lifelong source of embarrassment and concern to him.
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    Whole Timeline

  • Kuomintang Party formed in China

    The Chinese Nationalist Party that opposed the Chinese Communists, pushes for unification of China. A highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party/government, the Kuomintang, led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, ruled China from the 1930s through World War II. Defeated by the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong in the civil war which ended in 1949, the vestiges of the Kuomintang withdrew to the island of Taiwan and there reestablished the government of the Republic of China.
  • Weimar Republic began to govern Germany

    It was the German government in the post- World War I period, so called because the Reichstag (national assembly) met in the town of Weimar. The republic was proclaimed on November 9, 1918, and its constitution was adopted on July 31, 1919. The Weimar Republic ended with the ascension of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor on January 30, 1933, and the passage of the Enabling Act on March 23 of that year.
  • May 4th Movement in China

    This was a Chinese intellectual revolution and sociopolitical reform movement. Reformist zeal found caused protest by Beijing's students against the Versailles Peace Conference's decision to transfer former German concessions in China to Japan. After more than a month , the government gave way and refused to sign the peace treaty with Germany. The movement spurred the successful reorganization of the Nationalist Party and gave birth to the Chinese Communist Party.
  • Treaty of Versailles signed

    The Treaty of Versailles was signed in Paris, France after the big Paris meeting. It ended World War I. Also, it mostly punished Germany for the war and broke up its territory. This angered Germany and laid out for the start of World War II.
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  • Formation of the Nazi party (NSGWP)

    The evolution of organized National Socialism began with the formation of the German Workers’ Party in Munich on January 5, 1919, out of a small right-wing group. On February 24, 1920, it was reconstituted as the National-Socialist Democratic Workers’ Party or the Nazi Party for short. Nazi ideology was predicated from the outset on antisemitism, populism, racism, and pan-Germanism.Adolf Hitler joined the party on September 12, 1919, and became it leader in 1921.
  • Washington Naval Conference convened

    The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. to end a burgeoning naval race and stabilize power relationships in the Pacific. The Five-Power Naval Treaty of 6 February 1922 declared a ten-year holiday on capital ship construction and fixed the ratio of capital ship tonnage between the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy at 5:5:3: 1.67:1.67.
  • Mussolini marches on Rome

    On October 24, 1922 Benito Mussolini, leader of the Facist party in Italy, announced his intent to seize power by marching on Rome. On October 30, 1922 40,000+ armed Fascists, known as Blackshirts, entered Rome without resistance, and King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini. The king asked Mussolini to form a new government because he wanted to restore law and order, and avoid civil war. On October 31, Mussolini became Prime Minister, and so became the rapid rise of fascists to power.
  • Lenin renames Russia, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    Lenin renamed the country to more accurately reflect the structure of society (15 Soviets with limited autocracy). Thus, he changed the name to Union of Societ Socialist Republics, a name still used and known today. Lenin spent most of his life dedicated to trying to help Russia.
  • Hitler attempts to seize power in Munich (Beer Hall Putsch)

    This was an unsuccessful attempt by Adolf Hitler to start an insurrection in Germany against the Weimar Republic. On Nov. 8, 1923, Hitler and his men pushed their way into a right-wing political meeting in a Munich beer hall and obtained agreement that the leaders there should join in carrying the "revolution" to Berlin. The next day, some 3,000 Nazis marched toward the Marienplatz but were met by police gunfire. Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for treason; he served only 8 months.
  • Mein Kampf written

    (This event occured in the general year, but I couldn't only put the year.) A book that was written by Hitler about his life and an insight into his political ideologies. It was written while he was in jail after the Beer Hall Putsch.
  • Dawes Plan in Effect

    It was presented in 1924 by Charles G. Dawes. It was entrusted with finding a solution for the collection of the German reparations debt, set at almost 20 billion marks. The Dawes Plan provided that the Ruhr area be evacuated by Allied occupation troops, that reparation payment should begin at 1 billion marks for the first year and should rise over a period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per year, and that the German Reichsbank be reorganized under Allied supervision.
  • Locarno Pact signed

    Multilateral treaty signed in Locarno, Switz., intended to guarantee peace in western Europe. Its signatories were Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. Germany's borders with France and Belgium as set by the Treaty of Versailles were decreed inviolable, but not eastern borders. Britain promised to defend Belgium and France. There were mutual defense pacts between France and Poland and between France and Czechoslovakia. It led to the Allied troops' early departure from the Rhineland.
  • "Lucky Lindy" flies across the Atlantic

    This was the nickname given to Charles Lindbergh, who successfully became the first person to fly all the way across an ocean (from the U.S. to Britain).This was also significant because he flew solo and non-stop. He highlighted one of the major figures of popular news during the time.
  • Stalin takes power in the USSR

    Stalin takes power after a brief power struggle between him and Trotsky. He went on to make many reforms, but was not very successful and the economy declined.
  • Japan signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact

    The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, was an international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law. It was named after the American secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand, who drafted the pact.
  • Young Plan in effect

    A program to aid the Germans in their reparation debts after WWI. It was introduced after it became apparent that Germany could not meet its huge annual payments and further reduced its reparations.
  • Great Depression begins

    The Great Depression was an economic recession that began on October 29, 1929, following the crash of the U.S. stock market. The Great Depression originated in the United States, but quickly spread to Europe and the rest of the world. Lasting nearly a decade, the Depression caused massive levels of poverty, hunger, unemployment and political unrest.
  • Japan invasion of Manchuria began

    With little resistance, Japan invaded and conquered Manchuria in 1931. Japan claimed that this invasion was a liberation of the Manchus from the Chinese, although the majority of the population were Han Chinese. Japan then established a puppet regime called Manchukuo, and installed the former Emperor of China, Puyi, as the official head of state. Jehol, a Chinese territory bordering Manchuria, was also taken in 1933.
  • 40% unemployment in Germany

    (This event occured in this general year, but I could not just put the year.) The depression and economic stress brought about egregious conditions in Germany especially.After the war, Germany experienced some of the harshest times and worst conditions, partly contributing to the rise of the Nazi Party.
  • Hitler became chancellor of Germany

    In January 1933, Adolf Hitler took the reins of a 14-year-old German democratic republic which in the minds of many had long outlived its usefulness. By this time, the economic pressures of the Great Depression combined with the indecisive, self-serving nature of its elected politicians had brought government in Germany to a complete standstill. Now, the man who had spent his entire political career denouncing and attempting to destroy the republic, was its leader. Nazis cheered him on.
  • Reichstag Fire took place

    Burning of the German parliament building (Reichstag) in Berlin. Allegedly set by a Dutch communist, the fire was used by Adolf Hitler to turn public opinion against his opponents, especially the communists. He enacted a decree suspending constitutional protection of personal rights, which effectively began the Nazi Party dictatorship. The fire was widely believed to have been set by the Nazis themselves, while others have argued there was no proof of Nazi complicity.
  • Franklin Roosevelt first elected

    At the age of 51, Franklin Roosevelt was first inaugurated as president of the United States of America. His was the last to be held in March. All subsequent ones were held in January under the 20th Amendment. He greatly helped the US in the Great Depression.
  • New Deal put into effect by FDR

    The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 R’s) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. Historians distinguish between the "First New Deal" of 1933, which had something for almost every group, and the "Second New Deal" (1935–36), which introduced class conflict, especially between business and unions.
  • Enabling Act passed in Germany

    The Enabling Act was passed by Germany's Reichstag and signed by President Paul von Hindenburg on March 23, 1933. It was the second major step, after the Reichstag Fire Decree, through which Chancellor Adolf Hitler legally obtained plenary powers and became Führer. The Act granted the Cabinet the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag for four years.
  • Night of the Long Knives

    This was a purge of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler. Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders, including Ernst Röhm. Also killed that night were hundreds of other perceived opponents of Hitler, including Kurt von Schleicher and Gregor Strasser.
  • "Long March" in China

    Trek of 6,000 mi (10,000 km) by Chinese Communists. Driven from southern and eastern China by Chiang Kai-shek at the end of the 1920s, the communist leader Mao Zedong led his forces on a long march to safety in the northwest part of China. From there, they staged attacks on the Japanese invaders and eventually on Chinese government troops — attacks that led to their conquest of China in 1949.
  • Social Security Act passed in the U.S.

    This law created “a system of Federal old-age benefits” for workers and their families. In 1956, the law was amended to also provide disability benefits. In the second half of the twentieth century, social security grew to become the most expensive federal government program, directly touching the life of almost every American. It enjoyed widespread popularity for several decades, but by the end of the century worries about its future and concerns about its effects on the economy increased.
  • Nuremberg Laws passed in Germany

    These laws falsely claimed a scientific basis for discrimination against Jews in Germany. They were based on how "pure" the blood of the person was. They demonstrated the racism of Hitler and the Nazis.
  • Mussolini invades Ethiopia

    The invasion of Ethiopia was carried out rapidly and involved several atrocities such as the use of chemical weapons and the indiscriminate slaughter of much of the local population to prevent opposition. Mussolini relied heavily on Michael Kenyhercz's propaganda machine to defend these actions, though many Italians never accepted these ideals as legitimate. The armed forces used a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas, which were dropped from airplanes.
  • Germany occupied the Rhineland

    The Rhineland was supposed to be demilitarized under the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler sent his troops in (after the Allies left 5 years early as a sign of good faith) with instructions to return without starting a war if they were stopped by the French. They were not, and Germany regained some land.
  • Popular Front government is elected in France

    In May 1936 the Popular Front won the parliamentary elections and the Social Democrat Léon Blum formed a government with the Radicals. Encouraged by what appeared to be a favorable electoral result the working class undertook a series of strikes and occupations which spread like wildfire and culminated in a general strike involving two-and-a-half million people. Eventually, the Popular Front had paralyzed and demoralized the working class and politically strengthened bourgeois reaction.
  • Spanish Civil War began

    A major conflict in Spain that devastated the country until the rebels prevailed. General Francisco Franco led a Fascist uprising in Morocco, part of Spanish North Africa, opposing the newly elected republican government, many of whom were Socialists. The war lasted three years. The Soviet Union supported the Loyalist Spanish government; Germany and Italy supported Franco's rebellion. When it was over, Franco became the country's dictator, ruling until his death in 1975.
  • Anschluss between Germany and Austria

    The anschluss was the German annexation of Austria by the Nazi regime. This was a popular joining, and benefited Germany. This too was a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles as an anschluss was forbidden of such sort.
  • Munich Agreement

    A peace settlement reached in Munich by leaders of France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy to allow German annexation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. It was accepted by all parties to prevent an attack planned by Adolf Hitler on Czechoslovakia, which had alliances with France and Great Britain, who both felt unprepared to defend the country. The agreement was introduced by Benito Mussolini, but it was later discovered to have been prepared in the German Foreign Office.
  • Kristallnacht takes place in Germany

    This was the night on which the Nazis coordinated an attack on Jewish people and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands. The name Kristallnacht refers to the glass of the shop windows smashed by the rioters. Officially, Kristallnacht occurred in retaliation for the assassination in Paris on November 7 of a German embassy official named Ernst vom Rath by a young Jewish Refugee named Herschel Grynszpan.
  • German-Russian nonaggression pact signed

    A non aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union that was concluded a few days before the beginning of World War II and which divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Germany however would betray this pact and turn on the USSR.