Industrialization in Europe 1750-1914

  • Period: to

    Theme 5: Development and tranfromation of social structures 1750-1910

    Although the Industrial Revolution from 1750-1914 in Europe brought many continuities in its railroads and batteries, the changes over time are more significant in the uses of the new inventions such as power looms, four field systems, and steamboats
  • Four Field System

    Viscount Townshend successfully introduced a new method of crop rotation on his farms in the mid 1700s. He divided his fields up into four different types of produce and using this system, he found that he could grow more crops and get a better yield from the land. This was a change over time because farmers don't use this exact system anymore but they use some newer modern methods instead.
  • Spinning Mule

    In 1779, Crompton designed a new machine which he called the Spinning Mule. His machine combined the best features of both the Spinning Jenny and Arkwright's Water Frame. The Spinning Mule produced a very fine and even thread which was suitable to spin yarns for making muslin.This was a change over time because today, we don't really use the spiining mule, but we do use something very similar to it.
  • Power Loom

    A power loom is a mechanised loom powered by a line shaft. The first power loom was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1785. This was a change over time becasue the power looms are still used today, only more advanced and easier to use
  • Sewing Machine

    In 1790, the English inventor Thomas Saint invented the first sewing machine design, but he did not successfully advertise or market his invention. His machine was meant to be used on leather and canvas material. This was a change over time because even though we stll use sewing machines today, they are a lot faster and easier to use then the earlier ones.
  • First Battery Invented

    In 1800, Volta invented the first true battery, which came to be known as the voltaic pile. The voltaic pile consisted of pairs of copper and zinc discs piled on top of each other, separated by a layer of cloth or cardboard soaked in brine. This was a contiuity because we still use these battieries today in our everyuday lives.
  • First Steamboat

    The first successful steamboat was the Clermont, which was built by American inventor Robert Fulton in 1807. This is a change over time because we still use steambaots in a way, but they are more advanced and have better equipment then they did before
  • First Public Railroad

    The first passenger-carrying public railway was opened by the Oystermouth Railway in 1807, using horse-drawn carriages on an existing tramline. In 1804, Richard Trevithick designed and built the first (unnamed) steam locomotive to run on smooth rails. This was a continuity because we still use the same old railroads we used back then for transporting goods and people,people not as much anymore
  • First Tarmac Road in Paris

    John Loudon McAdam designed roads using broken stones laid in symmetrical, tight patterns and covered with small stones to create a hard surface. McAdam discovered that the best stone or gravel for road surfacing had to be broken or crushed, and then graded to a constant size of chippings.This was a continuity because the tarmac that McAdam invented is still used to build roads today.
  • Bessemer Process

    The Bessemer process, introduced in 1856, was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. This was a change over time because this exact proces is not used but something similar to this is with more modern steelworking.
  • Vaccum Cleaner

    The motorized vacuum cleaner was invented by Hubert Cecil Booth of England in 1901. This was a change over time becasue over time these vaccums became better and more efficent. We don't use the same ones we used back then.