HST 104 Final Exam

  • Britain gains control of the Cape Colony from the Dutch during the French Revolutionary Wars

  • The British East India Company allows missionaries in India

  • BEI outlaws Suttee

    Suttee is the practice of devout Hindu women throwing themselves on the funeral pyre of their husband
  • Last Mogul Emperor is deposed, and the capitol is moved from Delhi to Calcutta

  • Period: to

    The Great Trek

    The Boers moving inward to interior of Africa to form the Orange Free State, the Transvaal, and Natal
  • China makes sate and distribution of opium a capital crime

  • Period: to

    First Opium War

    They sent steamboats up the rivers to defeat them in the end, with the British annexing Hong Cong and forcing China to open 5 ports to trade
  • Britain seizes Natal

  • The Sepoy Rebellion

  • Britain takes control of the Kowloon Peninsula

    It's across from Hong Cong
  • Diamonds found in Kimberley, annexed by Britain

    More specifically, it was found in the Griqualand West right below the Orange Free State and above the Cape Colony
  • Opening of the Suez Canal

  • Period: to

    The Age of Imperialism

    The European nations and later the United States and Japan begin to expand their imperial holdings, carving up Africa and establishing claims in Asia
  • The Three Emperors League is created

    Bismark made it with Kaiser Wilhelm I, Franz Joseph, and Tsar Alexander II where they pledged to cooperate and maintain the peace and the status quo.
  • Germany and Austria makes the Duel Alliance

    It provides for mutual aid if either country is attacked by Russia
  • France gains control of Tunisia

  • Britain establishes a protectorate over Egypt

  • The Triple Alliance is formed when Italy joins the Duel Alliance

    This is in response to France establishing a protectorate over Tunisia
  • Germany gets the Togoland and the Cameroons in West Africa

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    Berlin Conference

  • Germany gets German East Africa (Tanganyika)

  • Reinsurance Treaty

    • Russia decided to be out of the Three Emperors League due to their hostility to Austria, but wanted to still be friends with Germany
    • It says that both countries would remain neutral in case of a war unless Germany attacked France or Russia attacked Austro-Hungary
  • Italy gets Somaliland

  • Hitler's Birth

  • Germany gets a British island naval station in the North Sea

    This was done in exchange for recognizing the British interests in Kenya, Uganda, and Zanzibar.
  • Italy gets Eritrea

  • Bismarck is fired by Kaiser Wilhelm II

  • Franco-Russian Alliance

    It's a military alliance aimed at the imperial rival of Britain
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    Sino-Japanese War

    • The war was ended by the Treaty of Shimonoseki which gave Japan the Island of Formosa (Taiwan)
    • It ensures the freedom of Korea
    • They get access to the Liaotung peninsula in southern Manchuria
  • Cecil Rhodes sends troops to the Transvaal

    This was done under the command of Dr. Leander S. Jameson, leading President Paul Kruger to get support from the Kaiser
  • British expeditionary force sent into Sudan under Lord Horatio Kitchener

  • The Battle of Adowa

    Italy fails in their invasion of Ethiopia
  • France and Britain agrees to maintain Siam as an independent buffer state

  • Battle of Omdurman

    Kitchener subdued the Mahdists using the machine gun
  • British troops mobilize to the border of the Transvaal

  • Period: to

    Boer Wars - Phase 1

    • The Boers inflict several humiliating defeats on the British between October 1899-1900
    • They besiege Kimberley, Mafeking, and Ladysmith
  • Boer Wars - Phase 2

    • The British bring in the more talented solders led by Field Marshall Lord Roberts and General Kitchener
    • They defeat the Boer army and release the three towns
  • Boxer Rebellion

    • 200 missionaries and others were killed and the capital of Peking was besieged
    • All 8 imperial nations worked together to form the International Expeditionary Force- Britain, Russia, Germany, Austro-Hungary, France, Italy, Japan, and America
    • After putting down the rebellion, they charge China an Indemnity of 67.5 million pounds
  • Period: to

    Boer Wars - Phase 3

    • The Boers resort to Guerilla warfare using hit-and-run tactics
    • the British resort to a scorched earth policy, where they burn farms and all of the fields, affecting the civilian populations
    • the British Rounded up the Boers and put them in Concentration camps
    • With no food left, 20,000 Afrikaners died of disease and malnutrition
    • Ended by the Peace of Vereeniging
  • Britain promises neutrality if Japan and Russia war occured

  • Britain allies with Japan

    This is because they were isolated after the Boer Wars
  • Italo-French Agreement

    • It was a secret agreement in which Italy threw its support behind France for their Morocco Protectorate, and they supported Italy’s possibilities in North Africa for colonies
    • This agreement and the Entente Cordiale isolated Germany
  • Japan surprise attacks the Russian Far Eastern Fleet and defeats their Baltic Fleet

  • Entente Cordiale

    • This was between France and Britain to not bring them into the Russo-Japanese War
    • France gives Egypt to Britain
    • Britain supports France forming a protectorate in Morocco
  • Treaty of Portsmouth

    • Japan got the lease to the Liaotung Peninsula
    • They divide that land up into Northern Manchuria which Russia has a sphere of, and Southern Manchuria that Japan gets the sphere on
  • Anglo-Russian Entente

    • It completed the Triple Entente
    • Under the terms of this, they give Afghanistan to Britain, and Persia is divided into zones of influence
  • Britain returned autonomy to the Orange Free State and the Transvaal

  • Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal, and the Colony into the self-governing Union of South Africa

  • Japanese conquest of Korea

  • Ottoman Empire enters the war

    • They closed off the Turkish Straits, the entrance to the Black Sea
  • Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    • He was a member of a Secret South Slav Nationalist Organization called the Black Hand or Union or Death
  • Austria orders an ultimatum to Serbia

    • It was that so harsh it would’ve made Serbia part of their empire
    • Serbia gave in on a lot of the points, but not all of them, but Austria did not accept any negotiation
  • Austria declares war on Serbia

    Germany gave Austria a blank check for this
  • Tsar Nicholas II mobilizes the Russian Army

  • Germany declares war on Russia

    • Germany issued an ultimatum to Russia, telling them to stop mobilizing their army, and Russia refused
  • Germany declared war on France

    • Germany sent a telegram to France asking their intentions, and France said they’d act in accordance with their interests
  • Germany invades Belgium

    • Their plan was the Schlieffen Plan, which is a quick attack on France, which makes them go through Belgium fast, which would bring Britain in
    • Germany knows they will violate Belgium's neutrality that all European nations had guaranteed in 1839
  • Britain declares war on Germany

    • This was in response to the British invasion of Belgium
  • Treaty of London

    • It was a secret treaty between Italy and the Allies
    • It promised them some Austo-Hungary and Ottoman Empire territory as well as colonies in North Africa
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    • a German U-Boat sunk a British passenger liner the Lusitania, killing 128 American citizens, outraging the US government and public
    • The US Government demanded the end of German unrestricted submarine warfare, and Germany agrees to only attack warships
  • Germans took control of the Eastern Front

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    Battle of the Somme

    • 18 mile front
    • The week before the battle, they did an intense artillery barrage on the German lines
    • The bombs mainly didn't explode, so when they attacked planning to finish the Germans off, they were attacked by German machine guns
    • They were given faulty wire cutters, leaving them in the open in no man's land
    • The British had 60,000 casualties
    • The battle continued for a further 140 days of attack and counterattack
  • Nobles kill Rasputin

  • Strikes and demonstrations break out in Petrograd

  • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare

    • They sink another British passenger liner the Laconia, killing 2 Americas
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    • The german foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman sent it to the German Ambassador to Mexico
    • Tensions between Mexico and America were high, and Germany promised assistance in Mexico retaking Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico
  • Tsar Nicholas abdicates throne to a provisional government

  • America declares war on Germany

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    • It ended the war between Germany and Russia
  • The German Spring Offense

    • It was a final push of Germany into France, but Britain and America rushed to defend and counter
  • Armistice is signed

  • Paris Peace Conference

    • Major decisions were made by the Council of Four: American President Woodrow Wilson, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and the Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando
    • Germany and Soviet Russia are not invited to the table basically
    • Wilson a year before put forward his plan for peace- the Fourteen Points
    • It created five treaties (Including the Treaty of Versailles)
  • Germany voted a new national assembly to draft a constitution for the republic

  • Treaty of Versailles

    • The Allies forced the German delegation to sign the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirror
  • March on Rome

    • Mussolini and the Black Shirts march on Rome
    • The king of Italy notices
    • Within 2 days, King Victor Emmanuel III names Mussolini Premier of Italy
  • Beer Haul Putsch

    • They join with General Erich Ludendorff*and his conservative nationalists and try to take over the government, but it fails, and they are all arrested and tried for treason
    • Ludendorff is let off, but Hitler is convicted of treason, and sentenced to 5 years in prison
    • Hitler wrote Mein Kampf in prison
  • Allies agree to the Dawes Plan

    • It says that when their economy is strong they pay more reparations, and when the economy is weak, they will pay less
  • Germany and France sign the Locarno Pact

    • They promise to respect each other’s mutual borders, and Germany once again agrees to the permanent demilitarization of the Rhineland
  • Germany enters League of Nations

  • Allies agree to the Young Plan

    • It almost halved their reparations and extended their length for repayment
  • Hitler loses the presidential run to Hindenburg

  • Nazi party is made the only legal party in Germany

  • Germany withdraws from the League of Nations

  • Hitler is appointed Chancellor

  • Reichstag building is burned down

    • The Nazis blame the Communists
    • At Hitler’s behest, Hindenburg limits freedom of speech, assembly, and other liberties right before the election then
  • The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act

    • It gives Hitler and his cabinet full dictatorial authority for a period of four years
  • Night of the Long Knives

    • Hitler purged dissident Nazis and other opponents
  • Hindenburg dies and Hitler abolishes the office of president

  • Nuremberg Laws

    • It redefines who Jewish people are: anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent, as opposed to the historical matrilinealism
    • Now there were 2.5 million Jews instead of 600k, and they were all deprived of rights as citizens and banned from marrying non-Jews
  • Hitler rebuilds the military

  • Mussolini starts a war with Ethiopia

  • Anti-Comintern Pact is signed between Japan and Germany

  • The Rome-Berlin Axis is formed

  • Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland

  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis is formed as Italy signs the Anti-Comintern Pact

  • Japan invades China

  • Pro-Nazi party in Sudetenland demands autonomy

  • Hitler demands self-determination for Sudeten Germans

  • Munich Agreement

    Allowed for the immediate annexation of the Sudetenland
  • Aschluss

    Annexation of Austria
  • Germany annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia

  • Pact of Steel is signed between Italy and Germany

    Formal military alliance
  • German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

    Allows for the partition of Poland
  • Germany invades Poland at the same time as the Soviet Union

  • Britain and France declare war on Germany

  • Lend-Lease Act is authorized by Congress

    They promised to sell, lend, or lease any supplies that Roosevelt deemed necessary in exchange the US took almost all of Britain’s gold reserves, and foreign investments, and restricted trade
  • Tripartite Act

    Japan joins the Pact of Steel.
  • Period: to

    The Blitz

  • Nazi invasion of Denmark and Norway

  • Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister

    This is done in response to the British fleet's failure in defense of Norway
  • Germany invade Holland, Belgium, and France

  • The Battle of France

  • Premier Reynaud resigns

  • New French government signs an armistice

  • Japan takes control of French Indochina, and Roosevelt freezes all Japanese assets in the US

  • Britain and Soviet Union sign an Alliance

  • Germany invades the Soviet Union

  • Pearl Harbor

  • Britain and US declare war on Japan

  • Germany declares war on the US

  • The Battle of Stalingrad

  • Allies ousted Nazis from North Africa, and the invasion of Italy

  • Casablanca Conference

  • Period: to

    Teheran Conference

  • D-Day with Operation Overlord

  • Liberation of Paris

  • Red Army takes Warsaw

  • Yalta Conference

  • Potsdam Conference

  • Red Army enters Berlin

  • Hitler commits suicide

  • Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz surrenders

  • Nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima

  • Nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki

  • Emperor Hirohito surrenders on the USS Missouri