History151 Timeline

  • Aug 1, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Columbus sailed west into the Atlantic. Ten weeks later he thought he reached an island off Asia, instead landed in the Bahamas, also hit Cuba and believed it was China. In 1498, reached mainland and cruised along northern coast of South America.
  • Jan 1, 1518

    The Spanish Empire

    Hernando Cortes led a military expedition against Aztecs in Mexico after hearing stories of great treasures. The battle took place in Tenochtitlan, Aztec capital, failed but exposed natives to smallpox in which fatally killed the Aztec population. Cortes was known as the most brutal of the Spanish conquerors. Twenty years later, Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas in Peru which opened other Spanish advances into South America.
  • The Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada
    King Philip II of Spain sent one of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare (Spanish Armada) across the English Channel to attack England. To its advantage, the English ship was smaller therefore could easily maneuver and defeated the Armada which ended the Spain’s domination of the Atlantic.
  • Jamestown

    James I got his 1606 charters, the London Company launched for Virginia with 144 men on three ships (Godspeed, Discovery & Susan Constant). 104 out of 144 survived, sailed into the Chesapeake Bay and up a river, named it Jamestown. Down falls such as swampy and thick wooded area, barely any food and no women. 1608 more men and supplies came, along with that was Captain John Smith who took control with work, organizing raids and kidnap Indians.
  • Beginnings of Slavery

    Beginnings of Slavery
    Importation of slaves from Africa to America began. The Royal African Company of England monopolized the trade and kept prices high and supplies low. 1697, competition came into play and prices dropped and increased importation.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Major conflict between west English settlers and Native Americans broke out. Bacon (resented the Governor) commanded governor to send a militia. Berkley refused therefore Bacon and a few men did their own fighting. Berkley proclaimed Bacon and his helpers were rebels, Bacon took his troops and turned on the governor. First, Bacon won a temporary pardon, second time the governor repudiated the agreement. In return, Bacon burned down much of the town and the governor fled into exile.
  • The Quakers

    Quakers wanted a colony for themselves in order to preach and do what they wanted. Fortunatey, William Penn was wealthy and converted to their faith. When William Penn’s father died in 1681, Charles the II settled the large debt Penn’s father gave by giving large territory and naming it Pennsylvania, in honor. Pennsylvania was successful by recruiting, planning, and mild climate and soil. Also, Penn recognized Natives and treated them respectively.
  • The Enlightenment

    Opened doors to science and “natural” law. Had scientists arguing rational thought versus religious beliefs and also heightened interest in education, politics and government. Literacy increased, especially in white men and with that high education such as Universities came (Harvard, Yale, New Haven, Connecticut, Princeton).
  • Stamp Act Crisis

    Stamp Act Crisis
    The Stamp Act was a way for England to raise income from other colonies without consent of the colonial assemblies. Everyone was required to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used such as legal documents, newspapers and even playing cards. The Stamp Act was viewed by other colonies just as an attempt for England to raise money without approval.
  • Growing Cities

    Philadelphia and New York ports increased significantly and served as trading centers for famers, most advanced schools, sophisticated shops with imported goods. Establishments like offices, fire departments and systems to help the poor were established. During Revolutionary crisis’s, newspapers, books and taverns houses were used.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    On March 5, 1770 a crowd of colonist began to throw rocks and snowballs at a British soldier who was guarding the Boston Custom House. In order to protect the British, Captain Thomas Preston lined up his men in front of the building to protect it which lead to an all-out war. Many British soldiers fired their guns into the crowd leaving several people wounded and five people dead. The British soldiers were tried by a jury of Bostonians and were later found guilty of manslaughter.
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    In 1773 the government passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act gave companies the right to export their merchandise to colonies without paying taxes that merchants had to. This act revived the issue of taxation without representation and did not provide a new tax on tea. Although some assumed that the new law would be welcomed by colonist because it would reduce the price of tea in reality it was not wanted. Colonist boycotted tea with a great number of the population.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    George Washington was selected as commander and chief after congress realized they needed a single commander. Washington became the first president by unanimous choice. He was an advocate of independence, had strong military experience and was respected and trusted by the majority.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense was a pamphlet that was written by Thomas Paine. The pamphlet sold over 100,000 copies within a few months. He wanted the anger that Americans felt from parliamentary measures to the root of the problem. To him the root of the problem was the English Constitution. He felt that it was simple common sense for Americans to break from the political system that had inflicted brutality on their own people. In the end it supported the idea of independence.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    On July 4th 1776 thirteen colonies in North American announced their separation from Great Britain. The Declaration of Independence is the most important historical document in American history. Many colonies were inspired to become states because of the Declaration of Independence.
  • The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise
    At the end of June 1787 the conventions was in danger of collapsing. Delegates did not give up and on July 2nd the convention created a great committee. The consisted of one delegate from each state as well as Franklin. They produced a proposal that was became known as the “Great Compromise and called for a two-house legislature. The lower house would be represented based on population while the upper house would be represented with two members.
  • Eli Whitney

    Eli Whitney
    Inventor of the Cotton Gin; enhanced cotton production by simply removing cotton seeds in half the amount of time by hand; helped extend cotton growth from the islands to the South
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion occurred when farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay new whiskey taxes. They also began to terrorize tax collectors in the region. Washington called the soldiers of three states and put together an army and led troops to Pennsylvania. Due to intimidation, the federal government won the allegiance of whiskey rebels and loyalty of other western people. The whiskey tax was later repealed in the 1800’s.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The election of 1800 consisted of Adams for the Federalist and Jefferson for the Republican. Federalist felt that Jefferson was a dangerous radical with wild men. The Republicans saw Adams as a man who was conspiring to become king. The constitution wanted the elector to cast one vote for his party presidential candidate and then the other for his party’s vice presidential candidate. When the votes were counted Jefferson was elected after the 36th ballot.
  • Nullification

    Idea of establishing a federal law without the consent of state legislatures; Any law proposed to Congress has the right to consider law to be unconstitutional or not, which were null and voided; Tariff of 1828 most notable
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    The Jefferson Era; modernized education, advances in science; introduced several sources of transportation under both terms as well as foreign policies and state affairs; exposed Republican aspect of America
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Controversial trial reguarding the midnight appointments organized by John Adams; sparked conflict within the courts' system; one of the most important cases in nation's existence
  • 2nd National Bank

    2nd National Bank
    Restored economic woes after the War of 1812; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Created to eliminate national debt; Required to make bank notes as a more sufficient way of banking; Took charge over struggling state banks
  • Westward Expansion

    Westward Expansion
    Movement led by white settlers; Meant to explore other crop venues and excessive population growth due to the crowded East; Discovery of various states
  • The Rise of Feminism

    The Rise of Feminism
    Women started to argue about the fact that men and women are created equal. They started to question the “social and legal restrictions. Also this started the first “American feminist movement”.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Resolved rift between North and South states and saved the Union from collapse; the movement stablized the balance between free states and slave states; Bill passed with Maine as a single amendment granting Missouri a slave state with boundary restrictions and Maine gaining independence as its own free state
  • Slave Revolts

    Slave Revolts
    This is not as extreme as it may sound, but slave disobeyed orders given to them by their masters. As it says in the book, “Perhaps the most important method of resistance was simply a pattern of everyday behavior by which blacks defied their masters.” Basically slaves started to become lazy from their master’s prospective.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    One of the most controversial presidents in U.S. history; Responsible for creating the Democratic political party to serve as a savior to the independent business and farm owners; "Era of the Common Man"; Notorious reputation for his political success compared to his immoral acts; Jacksonian Era
  • Free African Americans

    Free African Americans
    By the time of the Civil War, more than 250,000 free African Americans were living in states that still had slavery being enforced. They earned money and used it to free themselves and their families.
  • The Telegraph

    The Telegraph
    The telegraph was another major way of communication in the past. It used a language known as the “Morse Code”. In a matter of years this technology spread across the world. It was used by congress to communicate from Baltimore to Washington, and even railroads used it to tell ahead of time that there were going to be delays or schedule changes.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Forcing of several Indian tribes from the East into western U.S.; Siginificant event under Jackson's presidency; Treat of New Echota gave Jackson official power to remove tribes westward
  • Factories

    From 1840 to 1860 factories increased production by more than half. Factories helped make the value of good equal to the value of agricultural products. Basically the factories helped produce products rapidly.
  • James K. Polk's Presidency

    James K. Polk's Presidency
    James Polk's presidency was indicitive of the time. Imperialism justified by jingoism, called manifest destiny.
  • Railroad

    In 1850 The railroads at the time decreased the time it took to move goods from one place to another. As it says in the book “Traveling from New York to Chicago by lake and canal took roughly three weeks. By railroad in 1850 the same trip took less than two days.”
  • Erie Canal

    Erie Canal
    The Erie Canal was opened in 1852. The canal helped to transport goods much faster, the canal was exactly -“363 miles (584 kilometers) long, 40 feet (12m) wide, and 4 feet deep (1.2m)”.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act / Bleeding Kansas

    Kansas-Nebraska Act / Bleeding Kansas
    The act gave popular sovereignty to Kansas and Nebraska in regards to slavery. This caused immigration en masse to these states to vote. Disputes would break out in to battle causing Bleeding Kansas.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    A supreme court case that would rule slaves and their descendents were not protected by the constitution. They were not citizens and therefore did not have rights. This would be repealed by the 14th amendment.
  • American Civil War

    The bloodiest war in american history. More americans died during the war than all the wars before the Vietnam War combined. It ended on April 9, 1865.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    An executive order by President Lincoln giving freedom to slaves in the confederate states. Later ratified by the 13th amendment, outlawing slavery in all the states.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    An implematation of total war by Maj. Gen. William Sherman. It started in Atlanta and ended in Savannah, Georgia. It was indicative of the lengths the North would go to in order to maintain the Union.
  • The Abolition of Slavery

    The Abolition of Slavery
    Slavery was abolished by the Americans because of the Thirteenth amendment. As it says in the book “The United States abolished slavery through the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865, in the aftermath of the Civil War.”
  • Anti-Abolitionism

    Basically this group is against the African Americans gaining freedom, and most of the people in this movement were white southerners. As said in the book “Almost all white southerners, of course, were bitterly hostile to the movement.”
  • Formation of the Ku Klux Klan

    Formation of the Ku Klux Klan
    The origination of the KKK. Not as widespread as in the 1920's - 40's. It was a group of Vigilante bigots against reconstruction. Basically a continuation of the confederacy. Died down in the 1870's due to congressional intervention.
  • Andrew Johnson's Presidency

    Following Lincoln's assassination Johnson became president. He was left to lead Reconstruction following the Civil War. As a man from Tennessee he was seen as a sympathizer and gave out wide spread pardons.
  • Fouteenth Amendment to the Constitution

    This amendment gave civil rights. The 13th amendment abolished slavery but this one ensured rights and citizenship to those born and neutralized in the united states. A clause making debts made by the confederacy invalid.