History Project- 1

  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

  • Bessemer Process

    Once this process was invented, steel production became immensely cheaper. The steel produced by the process was also more pure. The US no longer needed to rely on other countries, and became more independent. Steel became more widespread and commonly used. The process worked by injected air into molten steel to remove impurities. A version of this process is still used today.
  • John D. Rockefeller

    This is the day John D. Rockefeller began his own business. His business reaped a large income during the Civil War. After Drake, Rockefeller became interested in the oil industry. He founded the Standard Oil Company.
  • Edwin Drake

    This is the day that Drake struck oil. He was the first manto succesfully extract oil. After many failed attempts and investments, he finally found a reliable driller and found oil. Once people were able to extract oil, the "Oil Rush" began and many people were desperate to find some.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

    This was a major scandal in which many government officials were found to be taking money from construction money. This was under Grant's rule.
  • Christopher Sholes

    Christopher Sholes invented the first common typewriter in 1868. The keys were initially in alphabetical order, but he rearranged them to avoid jamming. He designed the "QWERTY" style keyboard, which is still used today.
  • Transcontinental Railroad completed

    The transcontinental railroad was completed in Promontory Summit, Utah.The idea of a transcontinental railroad had been proposed earlier, but it finally began in the 1850s. It was the most significant development in transportation at the time. This was the first connection from coast to coast. Many people moved, and could easily travel across large spans of land. Areas along the railroad were more densely settled. It led to a large influx of emigrants.
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell is credited with the invention of the telephone. This was a significant development in communication. It was the first method of vocal communication. Alexander Graham Bell started a company called the Bell Telephone Company, which is now AT&T.
  • Munn v. Illinois

    In this famous case, Munn was found guilty of breaking laws set by the state of Illinois. It was required to set maximum storage amounts of grain, and the railroad industry did not do this. Munn tried to appeal by saying that Illinois unlawfully restricted his property, but he failed.
  • J. P. Morgan

    His full name is John Pierpont Morgan. Morgan began a banking house. He helped set up many mergers between two companies.
  • Thomas Edison

    Thomas Edison was a famous inventor. In the year 1879, he invented the first electric light bulb. He had initially been aiming to create the first method of communicating human voices, but was beaten my Alexander Graham Bell. Edison still invented the light bulb, a highly prevalent invention seen daily. Edison also strived to make the light bulbs affordable for all levels of society.
  • Haymarket Riot

    This was a fight between the police and activists for laborers in Chicago. The working conditions at the time weren't fair and many workers were upset by this. On May 4th, people rallied to protest police brutality. This led toa large scuffle. Many people were hanged as punishment afterwards.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    This was an act turned law with the support of many politicians. The law was created to regulate the railroad industry. Before the law was passed, railroad companies had monopolies in the areas they serviced. The law set guidelines and restrictions for the railroad industry, and was the first law to restrict an industry. The law helped avoid monopolies and set guidelines for companies.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    It is a law that outlaws trusts and illegal monopolies. It applies to both domestic industries and foreign businesses working in America. The act restricts companies from taking advantage of consumers and undermining capitalism.
  • Homestead Strike

    This was a major dispute between Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and Carnegie Steel Company. Carnegie wanted to break the union. The association put up a struggle, but eventually Carnegie won, and implemented longer hours and lower wages. This strike inspired many laborers, but also showed how powerful business owners were.
  • Pullman Strike

    Workers of Pullman Palace Car Company wanted to stop the decline in wages, and they did not succeed. They angrily boycotted, and the American Railway Union refused to work trains with Pullman cars. This led to amny issues in the railway system, forcing the goverment to ban any form of boycott. There was much defiance from the people of Chicago, were the strike was centered. This was the first time the government had gotten involved in a strike.
  • Eugene Debs

    Eugene Debs was the president of the American Railway Union at the time of the Pullman strike. He supported the strike, and also refused to transport most Pullman cars. He was jailed for supporting the Pullman workers, and after getting out of jail, he became a socialist.
  • Mother Jones

    This was around the time when Mary Jones began being referred to as Mother Jones. The was an important activist who worked hard to get more rights for miners and laborers.
  • Wright Brothers

    This is the date when the first airplane was flown. The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur made it. The airplane revolutionized the U.S.'s army and commerce. It was also a major development in terms of transportation and technology as well.
  • Lochner v. NY Decision

    In this famous case, Lochner claimed that "The New York's Bakeshop Act" was wrongly restricting owners of bakeries. He won the case, and it was found that the Bakeshop law unconstitutionally restricted and employer's ability to contract for labor. This showed how the government was in favor of helping the economy and industry rather than preserving the rights of individuals. Eventually this goal changed, and the government supported personal rights.
  • Henry Ford

    The Model T was released on this day. Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Company. He improved efficiency in the industry and helped reduce costs. His famous Model T could be afforded by everybody, not just the wealthy class. It was the first car that average citizens could buy.