History of Special Education and Inclusive Education Timeline

Timeline created by lianne3712
  • Brown V. Board of Education

    Brown V. Board of Education
    A landmark education case that focused on the protection of the rights of individuals with disabilities and for them to attend and benefit from public education. Supreme Court ruled that school segregation by race was not constitutional, even if resources were allotted equally. It set the path for future legislation for individuals with disabilities. (https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483)
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    Initiated the role of the federal government in protecting and providing for students from disadvantaged backgrounds so that they would have equal access to the public education system. It established the free and reduced lunch system. A critical component of the ESEA for individuals with disabilities was the grant program that encouraged states to create and improve programs for students with disabilities.
  • Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    Case in which handicapped children had been excluded from public schools. This suit required the state to provide “adequate alternative education services” as well as “prior hearing and periodic review of the child’s status, progress, and the adequacy of any educational alternative”. The courts required schools to describe the curricula, objectives, teacher qualifications, and supplemental services that were needed.
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VRA)

    Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VRA)
    VRA defined a handicapped person. It prohibited discrimination against students with disabilities in federally funded programs. It also made a difference in the provision of equal opportunities and services for individuals with disabilities. Because of this law, many individuals with disabilities now have greater access opportunities in the workplace, community services, and colleges/universities.
  • Educational Amendments Act

    Educational Amendments Act
    Granted federal funds to states for programming for exceptional learners. Provided the first federal funding of state programs for students who are gifted and talented. It also granted students and families the right of due process in special education placement.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)
    EAHCA required states to provide a free and appropriate public education for children with disabilities (ages 5 to 18). Required individualized education programs (IEPs). It was the first defined least restrictive environment.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    IDEA ensures students with a disability are provided with Free Appropriate Public Education that is tailored to their individual needs. It established “people-first” language for referring to people with disabilities. It also extended special education services to include social work, assistive technology, and rehabilitation services.
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
    Enacted to provide a structure on how to improve the performance of America’s elementary and secondary schools while at the same time ensuring that no child is trapped in a failing school. It covers a wide range of areas, from improving teacher quality to efforts to keep schools safe and drug-free. Three areas of education affected by NCLB are increased accountability, school choice, and greater flexibility for states, school districts, and schools. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0--2nhsDorg)
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
    Increased federal funds to provide early intervention services to students who do not need special education or related services. Raised standards for special education licensure. It adopted policies designed to prevent the disproportionate representation of students in special education by race and ethnicity.
  • The Every Student Success Act (ESSA)

    The Every Student Success Act (ESSA)
    Signed by President Obama as a commitment to equal opportunity for all students. ESSA replaced the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. This act includes many of the components of NCLB but it has additional opportunities for schools when students are not making adequate progress.