History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that school segregation by race was not constitutional. The reason this was so influential to students with disabilities is that it opened doors for future legislations. This was the first time in US history the federal government had sided with students who experienced inequality in the classroom.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Passed in 1965, ESEA initiated the role of the federal government in protecting and providing rights for students who came from disadvantaged backgrounds. It ensured they would all have equal access to the public education system. It benefited students with disabilities especially due to the fact was a grant program that it included that encouraged states to create and improve programs for students with disabilities.
  • PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    This court case challenged the constitutionality of excluding individuals with mental disabilities from public education and training. As stated in the court case, the end result was the state was not allowed to “deny to any mentally retarded child access to a free public program of education and training”.
  • Mills v Board of the District of Columbia

    Mills v Board of the District of Columbia
    In Mills v. Board of the District of Columbia, handicapped children had been excluded from public schools. This eventually led the state to be required to provide “adequate alternative education services” along with “prior hearing and periodic review of the child’s status, progress, and the adequacy of any educational alternative”.
  • BOE of Hudson Central v. Rowley

    BOE of Hudson Central v. Rowley
    This court case was influential as it clarified the definition of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE). In this court case, Amy Rowley, a deaf fifth grader used a FM hearing aid to amplify words spoken by her teacher and was doing better then the average student in her class. Although she may have benefited from an interpreter, the court ruled that schools were only required to provide sufficient, but not the best possible, support for students with disabilities.
  • Honig v. Doe

    Honig v. Doe
    In this court case a California school had indefinitely suspended a child, known as John Doe, for violent misbehavior due to his disability. By doing so, the school board had violated the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The court eventually ruled that schools could not expel children for behaviors related to their disability.
  • Cedar Rapids v. Garret

    Cedar Rapids v. Garret
    Garret was a student who was paralyzed at the age of 4 but had his mental capacities unaffected. Due to his physical disability, he required nursing services to attend class. In this court case, the court ruled that Under the IDEA Act, students must be provided with the services needed to attend school at no extra costs to the parents.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    Signed by Barack Obama, ESSA replaced the No child Left Behind Act from 2002. It was similar to the No Child Left Behind Act, but provided additional opportunities for schools where students were not making progress.