History of Special Education

  • Perkins Institute for the Blind opens

    Perkins Institute for the Blind opens
    Institution for people who were blind that was founded in Boston, MA., and is the oldest school in the United States. This institution was the first of its kind. Those who lived there, like a boarding school, were expected to live and learn like others. Those enrolled in the institution learned how to read embossed text, which they also printed and published.
  • Law mandating Compulsory Education

    Law mandating Compulsory Education
    The compulsory education law stated that all students to attend school for a certain period of time. This law required the government to provide a public education to all students, including those with disabilities. Rhode Island was the first state to adopt this rule, and others followed until 1918.
  • Beattie v. Board of Education

    Beattie v. Board of Education
    The Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that a student with disabilities can be expelled from school due to their facial abnormalities. Even though the mental ability of these students were fine, because teachers and other students could not look at them and they felt disgusted, they were taken out of the school.
  • Council for Exceptional Education

    Council for Exceptional Education
    The Council for Exceptional Education is the first advocacy group for children with disabilities and now one of the largest groups. The primary focus of the CEC is to ensure that all students who have a disability receive a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). https://exceptionalchildren.org/
  • Classification of Autism

    Classification of Autism
    Leo Kanner, a physician and a psychiatrist, was the first individual to publish a description on infants with autism. He discussed in his finding that it was a neurodevelopmental disorder and he also concluded that children with autism were born with the inability to properly communicate with others. Kanner also discussed genetics playing a role in a person born with autism.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This is the case that overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson case, which ruled "separate but equal". This court case addressed black v. white students as well as special needs v. general education students. This court case was the grounds for the creation of advocacy groups as well as providing appropriate and equal education to all students.
  • Section 504

    Section 504
    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act protects individuals with special needs and disabilities from discrimination. Eligibility for a section 504 plan is either a physical or mental disability that inhibits an individuals learning. 504 also includes FAPE as well as LRE (least restrictive environment).
  • Least Restrictive Environment

    Least Restrictive Environment
    When a student has an IEP or a 504 plan, they must be placed in the least restrictive environment (LRE). This ensures that students are in as many general education classes while receiving the proper accommodations. Every LRE is different depending on the student and the severity of their disability, for example, while one student's LRE many be in the general classroom, another's may be in a pull out room with one-on-one instruction.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    NCLB was a law singed by President George W. Bush that states all schools will be help accountable for their students' academic outcomes. NCLB also requires that all states are to administer assessments once a year in reading and math in grades 3-8 and once during high school. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0--2nhsDorg
  • IDEA reauthorized

    IDEA reauthorized
    IDEA was originally created in 2002, but reauthorized in 2004. This reauthorization states that all students who have a disability receive a free, appropriate public education, in addition to the special services that are designed specifically for them to help them succeed. IDEA also mandates that schools equality and accountability in the education of students with disabilities. Under IDEA, it is important that parents receive information regarding the procedural safeguards.