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History of Special Education

  • Law Mandating Compulsory Education

    Rhode Island passed the Compulsory Education Law. It states children are to receive education funded by the government.
    Rationale-a state has made education mandatory and the government is required to fund it.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Determined that a black man's civil rights were not violated by expecting him to sit in the train car for blacks only. Case established marginalized people like blacks and those with disabilities were to be separated from the non disabled and/or whites. This treatment was considered equal.
    -Set the standard for separate but equal philosophy
  • Beattie v Board of Education

    Students with physical disabilities like facial abnormalities and drooling were expelled from school. Teachers and students were ill prepared to deal with the disabilities even though they were only physical abnormalities.
    Rationale: People with out disabilities need to be educated about people with disabilities because it is not fair to ostracize a person because they are different and you don't understand them.
  • Brown vs the Board of Education

    Abolished the idea of "separate but equal" for students of color stating it was inappropriate in the public school setting. It terminated having separate facilities from whites for students of color. This decision led to advocation of students with special needs and the need to extend this decision to include them because special needs students were being separated from general education students.
    Rationale-foundation for demanding equality for a marginalized group
  • Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central District v Rowley

    Designed the Rowley Two Part Test-a litmus test determine that FAPE is being met with the provisions set forth in an IEP and establishing through a set of specific questions that a school has met all requirements of IDEA and provided the said requirements in the IEP.
    Rationale- Demonstrates the importance of the IEP as a legal document. Schools have to meet the requirements of IDEA and document how they meet those requirements for a student in a student's IEP.
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act

    Ensures the following 6 pillars: Requirement of IEP, documented services provided, LRE- inclusion setting when possible, FAPE-receives same education as gen. ed., Procedural Safeguards-rights of all parties are protected, Appropriate Evaluation-eliminates discrimination for race and culture and Cross Collaboration- parents, teachers, student etc are involved.
    Rationale: A foundation law for special education students because it outlines their rights as well as the rights for their parents.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    George Bush signed the law stating that no matter the setting, inside or out of school, those with disabilities were not to be discriminated against for any reason and should have the same rights as people who are not disabled.
    Rationale- ensures people with disabilities are not treated differently than people without disabilities for any reason.
  • Florence County School District Four v Shannon Carter

    When parents receives reimbursement for private educational placement of their special education child, the private institution does not have to meet IDEA's definition of free and appropriate education nor meet state education standards.
    Rationale: Parents are allowed to receive reimbursement for private school placement of their special education child. The private schools are not expected to follow the same guidelines as public schools for providing special educational services to children.
  • Assistive Technology Act

    A grant program for every state in the US to provide assistive technology and programs to provide people with special needs access to technology devices. The devices allow them to fully participate in any activity in school or outside of school for the rest of their lives.
    Rationale: Whether in school or in the community, people with special needs are able to access technology need to be able to participate with those who do not have disabilities.
  • Jacob Winkleman v Parma City School District

    Both parents and child(ren) are entitled to have their rights upheld by schools. Parents are allowed to seek legal action for violation of their individual rights under IDEA.
    Rationale: parent and student rights are separate and each group is entitled to have their individual rights upheld.