History of DNA

  • Mendel - Genetic Inheritance

    Gregor Mendel published results of his investigations of the inheritance "factors" based on his work with peas. He noted certain factors, later called genes, are passed from parent to offspring.
  • Shape of DNA discovered

    Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, Francis Crick and James Watson discover the chemical structure of DNA. This being the double-helical shape of DN. This starts a new branch of science - molecular biology. Watson and Crick made a model of the DNA mlecule and proved that genes determine heredity.
  • DNA in a tube

    Arthur Kornberg produced DNA in a test tube.
  • DNA sequencing

    Sanger developed a sequencing procedure for DNA.
  • Genetic Code

    The genetic code was discovered. Scientists are now able to predict characteristics by studying DNA. This leads to genetic engineering, genetic couseling etc.
  • Recombinant DNA

    Paul Berg produced the first recombinant DNA molecule.
  • Changing Positions

    Barbara McClintock was awarded the Nobel Prize for her discovery that genes are able to change position on chromosomes.
  • Mapping the genome

    An international team of scientists began the project to map the human genome. The first crime convivtion based on DNA fingerprinting, in Portland Oregon
  • Gene therapy

    Gene therapy was used on patients for the first time.
  • PCR

    Kary Mullis discovered the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure, for which he was awarded the Nobel prize.
  • Genetic Tomatoes

    The FDA approved the first genetically engineered food - FlavrSavr tomatoes engineered for better flavour and shelf life.
  • DNA testing

    DNA testing in forensics cases gains fame in the O.J. Simpson trial.
  • Dolly the sheep

    Dolly the Sheep - the first adult animal clone.
  • Human Genome

    Ventor and Francis jointly announce the sequencing of the entire human genome.