History of Curriculum Development for Special Education

  • Curative Geography and Institutionalism

    Curative Geography and Institutionalism
    American's followed ideals of the French Enlightment attempting to find routes for people considered disabled that allowed improvement through education. Care become no longer just custodial.
  • Itard and the Wild Boy of Aveyron

    Itard and the Wild Boy of Aveyron
    Jean-Marc Itard began testing his early behavior beliefs on a boy named Victor, a feral boy who had no contact with society. Itard believed that Victor's feral and "idiot" nature was not because of and an inate difficiency but because of his lack of socialization. Through education he could be taught. He utilized 5 steps: socialization, training of the senses, concept development, speech, and transfer of learning.
  • Samuel Gridley Howe School for the Blind Boston, MA

    Samuel Gridley Howe School for the Blind Boston, MA
    Howe established a school for the blind and worked with students who were blind with the ideals of mind body dualism: damaged body did not mean that the mind was damaged.
  • Edouard Seguin School for the Handicapped

    Edouard Seguin School for the Handicapped
    Seguin, like his educator believed that students with disabiites could be educated. His pedagogy focused on moral treatment, revised Condillacan sensualism, and educadibility of "idiots". His teachings were very focused on the senses being the gateway to learning. Seguin believed that through education people with disabilities could be educated and then reintegrated back into society.
  • Sorting Students Based on Academic Ability

    American Schools based on academic standing. Segregated classes were created to house the students who seemingly could not be taught.
  • Progressive Era

    Progressive Era
    This era carried with it the ideals of the French Enlightenment along with the "optimism concerning the secular perfectibility of the human condition and society through the application of rationality" (Danforth et al 2006).
    This was the era that formed the helping professions that we now know as special educators, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, etc.
  • Committee of Ten

    The National Education Association created the Committee of Ten to crate a standard curriculum to educate students. Composed of mostly educators and chaired by Charles Eliot they recommended 8 years of elementary, 4 years of secondary education, and four differnt curricula for highschool.
  • The First Special Education Class

    The First Special Education Class
    The first special education class was created in Providience, RI for students considered "mental defectives".
  • Binet's First Intelligence Test

    Binet's First Intelligence Test
    Binet's First intelligence test was used by many psychologist to determine student's ability to learn.
  • The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

    The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary education created goals before reforming schools based on seven cardinal principles: health, command of fundemental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, civic education, worthy use of leisure, and ethical character.
  • Legal Requirement for ALL Children to attend School

    Legal Requirement for ALL Children to attend School
    By 1921 ALL children were legally required to attend school until around age 14
  • Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction by Ralph W. Tyler

    In his book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, Tyler posed foour questions that helped form curricula development:
    1. What educational purposes should be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
    2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
    3. How can educational experiences be effectively organized?
    4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained.
  • Taxonomy of Education Objectives:,Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain

    Benjamin Bloom and a group of psychologists identified six levels in the cognitive domain: simple recall or recognition of facts - increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels- classified eveluation. (Think Bloom's Taxonomy)
  • Curriculum Mapping

    In the 1970s and 1800s Fenwick W. English introduced curriculum mapping helping educators to align their curricula.
  • Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)

    Schools recieving federal funding were required to educate students with handicaps and provide one free meal a day regardless of the severity of their disability. Schools would create a plan for each student that would closely as possible resemble that of a non-disabled peer.
  • The Seven Step Lesson Plan

    Madeline Hunter created the Seven Step Lesson Plan.
  • A Nation at Risk

    Created by Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education depicted that the educational system in the US was not up to par and needed improvement to make our nation stronger.
  • Frames of the Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    Published by Howard Gardner used even by many teachers today to meet the needs of all students in their classrooms.
  • IDEA Reauthorization

    IDEA now includes infants and toddlers to fall under service of IDEA.
  • IDEA Reauthorization 1990

    Major Changes made to IDEA making it easier to provide "free and appropriate education for all"
  • NCLB

    Previously the Elementary and Secondary Education Act is revised and renamed the No Child Left Behind Act. President George W. Bush enacts the No Child Left Behind act requiring schools to extensively implement state standards. This implementation is directly related to the criteria for funding of schools.