Quality components

History of CTE related legislation beginning at 1862

  • Morrill Act

    This was the first legislation passed by the federal government which funded vocational education. 30,000 acres of land was given to each state for each senator and representative in Congress. The land was then to be sold and the funds used purchase machinery, books, equipment, materials and pay salaries of instructors of subjects that promoted liberal and practical education of industrial and agriculture classes. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Civil War Ends

    1865-1866 Civil War Ends, States reenter the Union.(About.com, 2015)
  • Hampton Institute established

    This school provided African Americans with both a liberal education and trade training.(Scott, 2008)
  • 1870's Movement towards educated labor, not just skilled labor. (Scott, 2008)

  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment signed giving Blacks the right to vote. (About.com, 2015)
  • First Telephone Call

    Alexander Graham Bell makes first telephone call. (About.com, 2015)
  • First Corporate Trade School

    R. Hoe and Company, manufacturers of printing presses, creates the first corporate trade school. (Scott, 2008)
  • Typewriter invented

    1873 Typewriter invented (about.com, 2015)
  • Sloyd Schools

    Swedish education system that combined woodworking and related ‘soft’ skills. Program grained government funding in 1874. Also was involved in training teachers for the program.
    (Scott, 2008)
  • Quincy Plan

    Francis Parker developed a school system that emphasized activity-oriented curriculum based on student’s interests and needs. (Scott, 2008)
  • First manual training high school created in St. Louis

    First manual training high school created in St. Louis. Students attended classes in mathematics, science, drawing, language, literature, and a double period in shop work. (Scott, 2008)
  • American Sloyd System

    Gustaf Larson moves to America and brings the Swedish sloyd system with him. (Scott, 2008)
  • Second Morrill Act (Maintenance Act)

    This amendment to the first Morrill Act mandated that land-grant institutions were to be open to both White and Black students or “separate but equal” institutions needed to be created. (Gordon, 2008)
  • American School of Correspondence founded

    Founded by R. T. Miller and established so people away from schools in rural areas could receive a high school diploma and learn trade skills like carpentry, drawing, and electrical trades. (Scott, 2008)
  • Wright Brothers first flight

    Wright Brothers make first flight at Kitty Hawk. (About.com, 2015)
  • Charles Prosser and John Dewey

    Differing philosophies of education that greatly impacted government policy. Dewey looked at the needs of the individual, while Prosser looked at the needs of industry. (Scott, 2008)
  • First Assembly Line

    Henry Ford creates first moving assembly line. (About.com, 2015)
  • Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act

    This established an outreach program from the land grant universities to provide extension work to the greater community in the areas of agriculture and home economics. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Smith-Hughes Act (National Vocational Education Act)

    This act provided federal funds to state to promote secondary vocational education in agriculture, industrial trades, and home economics. Created state agencies to act as a liaison between the local districts receiving the funds and the federal board. (Scott, 2008)
  • Federal Board for Vocational Education

    During WWI the Federal Board for Vocational Education was created to develop a permanent system of vocational education and train people in skilled occupations that were needed in war/combat conditions. The board trained workers in military and industrial areas. (Gordon, 2008)
  • 19th Amendment passed

    Women granted right to vote in the United States. (About.com, 2015)
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    Stock market crashes and loses $16 billion, Great Depression (About.com, 2015)
  • George-Dean Act (public Law 74-673)

    This act authorized approximately $14 million a year for traditional vocational programs that had been funded in the past and added to it marketing occupations and teacher education programs. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Period: to

    World War II

  • VTWPW and VED

    The Vocational Training for War Production Workers (VTWPW) and Vocational Education for National Defense (VEND) programs were created to train workers/students for immediate employability in a specific job needed for WWII. This was a rapid training of large numbers of inexperienced workers. (Gordon, 2008)
  • WWII Rosie the Riveter

    1942 WWII
    As more men were involved in the fighting of WWII women increased their number in industrial jobs. Women worked in shipyards, factories, assembly plants, and foundries. In December 1941 11,552were enrolled in training programs, by April 1943 that number had grown to 741,332 women. This changed women’s roles in careers, marriage, wage, and pay. (Gordon, 2008)
  • 1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (Public Law 78-346) (GI Bill of Rights)

    This act assisted the servicemen returning after WWII with education and training. Many veterans enrolled in vocational programs and some majored in vocational teacher education. The GI Bill of Rights is still in place today and has helped many veterans and also helped promote the military by being an option for students to pay for school. (Gordon, 2008)
  • First Atomic Bomb tested

    (About.com, 2015)
  • George-Barden Act (Public Law 79-586)

    Authorized more funds annually for vocational education ($29 million). Authority was given for funds to support the Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of America youth organizations.(Gordon, 2008)
  • Segregation ruled illegal.

    (About.com, 2015)
  • George-Barden Amendments (Public Law 84-911)

    Added practical nursing (due to a nursing shortage) and fishery occupation to the areas that can receive funding. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Sputnik I

    Soviet Union launches Sputnik and starts space race. (About.com, 2015)
  • National Defense Education Act (Public Law 85-864)

    Created in response to Sputnik in 1957. This was the first act to stress the importance of science, math, foreign language and technical competencies. The funds provided training for youth, adults, and for apprenticeships. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Manpower Development Training Act (Public Law 87-415)

    This act authorized funds for training and retraining of unemployed adults, underemployed adults, and those who were economically disadvantaged. During training adults received subsistence benefits. This act was partly passed due to a fear of automation and technology replacing workers. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Vocational Education Act (Public Law 88-210)

    The major goal of this act was to maintain, extend, and improve existing programs of vocational education. It also provided part-time employment for youth while in school full-time.
    It also focused on vocational education meeting the needs of the individual and not just the needs of industry. The act directed funds to people who had academic, socioeconomic, or other handicaps that made regular vocational education difficult for them. (Gordon, 200
  • Vocational Education Amendments (Public Law 90-576)

    Amendments to VEA of 1963 which focused on vocational education at postsecondary education, training for all citizens, and broadening the definition of vocational education to bring it closer to general education. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Neil Armstrong is the first man on the moon.

    (About.com, 2015)
  • Comprehensive Employment Training Act (Public Law 93-203)

    This was a replacement of the Manpower Development Training Act and transferred decision making power from Washington DC to local and State Governments. CETA prime sponsors were created that were local units that worked in conjunction with education, training, and employment services. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Vocational Education Amendments (Public Law 94-482)

    This authorization set out to ensure that states involved a wide range of interested agencies and used all available resources for vocational education. States were also to look into overcoming sex discrimination and sex stereotyping in programs. (Gordon, 2008)
  • First personal computers introduced by IBM

    (About.com, 2015)
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act (Public Law 98-524)

    This act was an amendment to the earlier Vocational Education Acts. The economic goal was to improve the skills of the work force and to prepare adults for job opportunities. The social goal was to provide equal opportunities for adults. The act also focused on program improvement and at-risk populations. (Gordon, 2008)
  • World wide web invented

    (About.com, 2015)
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act (Public Law 101-392)

    This act focused on the application of academic and vocational skills needed in an increasingly technologically advanced global society. The act was for all people in the population and focused on integrating vocational and academic learning, articulation between secondary and postsecondary education, and closer ties between school and work. (Gordon, 2008)
  • School-to-Work Opportunities Act (Public Law 103-239)

    This act addressed the nation’s skills shortage by creating highly a skilled workforce through partnerships between educators and employers. The act focused on students learning skills, knowledge, abilities, and information about occupations and the labor market that will help them transition from school to work through school-based and work-based instruction. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Land-grant status given to 29 tribal colleges

    Land-grant status given to 29 tribal colleges. Allowing them to access funding. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (Public Law 104-193)

    Welfare recipients were allowed to count up to 12 months of CTE training as “work”. Welfare recipients were required to find work within two years of receiving benefits. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Workforce Investment Act (Public Law 105-220)

    The act focuses on local agencies to perform and administer services emphasizes accountability, and established a Twenty-First Century Workforce Commission, along with other mandates. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act

    This act dictated the appropriation of funds at the state and within the state levels, accountability at various levels, state leadership activities, authorized Tech Prep, and defined special populations/gender equity provisions. (Gordon, 2008)
  • No Child Left Behind Act (Public Law 107-110)

    This act increased school accountability provided more choices for parents and students, provided greater flexibility for states, school districts, and schools, and put reading first. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Workforce Investment Act Amendments

    Alterations to the 1998 act to remove some bureaucracy and improve and enhance other programs. (Gordon, 2008)
  • Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (Public Law 109-270)

    The major themes of this reauthorization were accountability and program improvements, secondary-postsecondary connections, links to rigorous academics, and a stronger focus on business and industry. (Gordon, 2008)