History of Cloning Biotechnology

By MCMecke
  • Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch- First example of embryotic twinning

    Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch- First example of embryotic twinning
    Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch showed the first demonstration of cloning by shaking two-celled sea urchins so much that they separated and grew into two separate esea urchins.
  • Walter Sutton Proves Chromosomes Hold Genetic Information

    Walter Sutton Proves Chromosomes Hold Genetic Information
    Walter Sutton proves that chromosomes hold genes'genetic information and are in the nucleus. Later, in 1903, he published "The Chromosomes in Heredity"
  • Hans Spemann- Nucelus controls development

    Hans Spemann- Nucelus controls development
    Using a baby hair, Spemann divided a salamnder egg into two. The nucleus was pushed into one side of the split cell. Only the side with the nucelus developed into new cells. After 4 cell divisions he had made 16 cells.
  • First Successful Nuclear Transfer

    First Successful Nuclear Transfer
    Robert Briggs and Thomas King complete the first successful nuclear tranfer on a frog. They rook a nucleus from a tadpole and put it into a frog whose nucleus had been removed.
  • Watson and Crick Determine the Structure of DNA

    Watson and Crick Determine the Structure of DNA
    Francis Crick and James Watson determine the double helix shape of DNA.
  • David Rorvik published the novel In His Image: The Cloning of a Man

    David Rorvik published the novel In His Image: The Cloning of a Man
    David Rorvik was an esteemed medical writer for both Time and The New York Times who made the claim that in 1978 the first human clone had been born. It was a hoax, but it because of his credibility was researched into and gained a lot of attention. Many people suspected Rorvi, to be telling the truth because of his credibility, and the credibility of his book's publishing company the J.B. Lippincott Company, itself a well-regarded publisher of medical books.
  • Human Genome Project Launched

    Human Genome Project Launched
    The National Institutes of Health officially launch the Human Genome Project. Project is to research the human genome and find out more about base pairs of DNA and identifying and mapping the genes of the human genome.
  • Dolly is born

    Dolly is born
    Dolly the sheep, the first animal ever cloned, was born on July 5th, 1996.
  • President Clinton announces a 5 year moratorium federal and privately funded human cloning research.

    President Clinton announces a 5 year moratorium federal and privately funded human cloning research.
    President Clinton says he is proposes a 5 year moratorium federal and privately funded human cloning research.
  • Richard Seed annonces he plans to clone a human before federal law can prohibit it.

    Richard Seed annonces he plans to clone a human before federal law can prohibit it.
    Richard Seed, American physicist and entrepreneur, announces that he will clone a human before the government makes it illegal.
  • Ninteen European Nations Ban Human Cloning

    Ninteen European Nations Ban Human Cloning
    Early January 1998, 19 European Nations ban human cloning.
  • FDA Has Authority Over Cloning

    FDA Has Authority Over Cloning
    The Food and Drug Administration announces it has authority over human cloning.
  • Human Genome Project Completed

    Human Genome Project Completed
  • Endangered Animals Cloned

    Endangered Animals Cloned
    Gaur and Mouflon et. al. clone endangered animals. Difficulties were found in trying to find animals with the most similar DNA to serve as donors/surrogates.
  • Primate embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Primate embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer
    Researchers took cells from an adult monkey and fused it with an egg cell without a nucleus. The embryo developed and then the cells were grown in a culture dish. Because these cells can change to form any cell type, they are called embryotic stem cells.
  • Human embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Human embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer by Shoukhrat Mitalipov and colleague. Done by taking skin cells from a patient and fusing them with donated egg cells. Electrical pulses were used to stimulate the eggs to begin dividing.