history of biotechnology

By 12tygau
  • Cells and microorganisms

    Cells and microorganisms
    Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" anc Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed the first microorganisms because of the invention of the microscope.
  • simple laws

    simple laws
    Gregor Mendal , an Austrian onk working with peo plants, discovered the simple laws of inheritance of rets that allowed one to predict the outcome of crosses with certain traits.
  • Process of fermentation

    Process of fermentation
    Louis pasteur described the scientific basis for fermentation, wine making, and the brewing of beer, establische the science of microbiology, and proposed the germ theory, claiming that microorganisms were responsible for infectios diseases
  • Nucleic acid in white blood cells

    Nucleic acid in white blood cells
    Johann Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. this later led scentists to believe that DNA might be the inheritable material of an organism.
  • Gene gun

    Gene gun
    Genes were moved into an organism through the use of a gene gun
  • Chromosomes

    Studying friut fies, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes
  • Moving genetic matierial

    Moving genetic matierial
    Fred Griffith, using mice, proved that genetc material could be mobed form one strain of bacteria to another.
  • Penecillin

    Sur Alexander Fleming isolated penicillin form a fungus. Many of his ideas are used to develop biotechnology drugs today.
  • One Enzyme

    One Enzyme
    Chargaff showed that DNA the nyumber of units of adenine equaled those of thymine and the number of units of cytosine equaled those of guanine.
  • Blender Expiriment

    Blender Expiriment
    Using their famous "blender experiment," Hershey and chase proved viruses replocated using DNA and confirmed the rol of DNA as the hereditary material.
  • Double helix DNA

    Double helix DNA
    Rosaling Franklin and Maurice Wilkins established through X-ray crstallography that DNA was indeed a double helix
  • Discovery of Dna

    Discovery of Dna
    Watson and Crick discover DNA
  • Plasmid DNA

    Plasmid DNA
    Haqyes discovered plasmid DNA, curcular pieces of DNA pound in bacteria
  • Rna

    Wlate4r gilver discovered them mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA
  • Enzymes that cut DNA

    Enzymes that cut DNA
    Arber, nathans, and smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • 64 codons

    64 codons
    khoranda and Nirenverg discovered the 64 codons that code for the 20 amino acids making up proteins.
  • Pruiffied Plasmids

    Pruiffied Plasmids
    DNA plasmids were Isolated and purified by vinograd
  • Bacterium Escherichia Coli

    Bacterium Escherichia Coli
    Madel adn higa were responsible for the first transformation of the bacteruim Escherichia coli.
  • Cloning

    Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer adn Cohen
  • First genetic engineering

    First genetic engineering
    Genentech, the worlds first genetic engineering company, was founded
  • Reco0mbundant DNA

    Reco0mbundant DNA
    140 scientists met to dray up guidelines for work with recombinant DNA in microorganisms. Paul Berg was a key organizer.
  • Sequencing DNA

    Sequencing DNA
    Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA, Geven an knknown piece o KNA, they were able to read the correct order of bases of adenine, cytosine, guanine and theymine.
  • Dna Fingerprint

    Dna Fingerprint
    Botstein fount that one could ve identified by the pattern made of one's DNA through a digest by different enzymes. This DNA fingerprint was called a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
  • Viro fertilization

    Viro fertilization
    Louise Joy Brown was born, the first human baby resulting fron in vitro fertilization, in which sperm and egg ar joined in a petri dish. The fertilized egg is later implanted in a womb.
  • Patented of altered life forms

    Patented of altered life forms
    The U.S. Supreme court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be pantented. This resulted in a huge startup of biothck companies.
  • transgenic animals

    transgenic animals
    Ohio University scientists make the first transgenic animals
  • Insulin Gene

    Insulin Gene
    Eli Lilly company placed a human insulin gene inside bactieria
  • Agrobacterium Mediated gene transfer

    Agrobacterium Mediated gene transfer
    Schell, chilton , Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
  • Polymerase

    Kary Mullis invneted polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA in the laboratory
  • Criminal cases

    Criminal cases
    Jefries applied RFLP in DNA profiling th hte study of crimial cases
  • Automated Fluorescence sequencer

    Automated Fluorescence sequencer
    An automated fluorescence sequencer was invented , speeding up the labor intense process.
  • Saftey guidlines

    Saftey guidlines
    NIH revidsed sagety guidelines for recombinant DNA to inclde plans grown in greenhouses adn animals raised in barns
  • silencing of genes

    silencing of genes
    Andrew fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silensing of genes, in the worm C elegans.
  • Anibodies

    Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody technology.
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes

    Yeast artificial  chromosomes
    Maynard olson adn colleagues at Washington university invented "yeast artificialchromosomes," or YACs which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • Dolly the sheep

    Dolly the sheep
    Ian wilmut colned Dolly the sheeep from an cell of a ewe at the roslin institute in Scotland.
  • DNA microarray

    DNA microarray
    DNA microarrray technology, looking ast the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time on a microscope slide or silicon ship, was developed
  • DNA sequencer

    DNA sequencer
    Dabiri and garner invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a capability of sequencing 76800 base pairs per hour, 5 to 30 times faster that existing sequencers. Technology like this greatly sped up the human Genome Project
  • Riboswitch

    Ron Breaker coined the term riboswitch or part of an mRNA moleculte that cna regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression
  • Human Genome project

    Human Genome project
    Announcement was made of the completion of the human genome project by Francis Colins and Craig Venter. teh project prvided teh ability to find genes adn gave rise to the sequencing of other genomes.