18th and 19th century in Spain

  • Spanish Crisis

    Spanish Crisis
    In 1789 Spain was immersed in a great estructural crisis; a political crisis because of the conservative government, an economic crisis where most of the people live in misery and a social crisis due to the control that the Church had over the population and the big rate of illiteracy.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Naval battle between Spain and Great Britain.
    Video: https://youtu.be/sRtUrvmok-c
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It was a treaty signed by Manuel Godoy and Napoleon in the one they agreed the French Army to enter in a pacific way in Spain to go to Portugal.
    More info: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-was-the-treaty-of-fontainebleau.html
  • Joseph I (1808-1814)

    Joseph I (1808-1814)
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    War of Independence

    It was an unequal war in the one the Spanish people fought against the French army. It was patriotic war, because Spanish people fought to liberate his own country, a civil war in the one Spanish people with different ideologies also fought, and finally an international war because many countries were involved and because France and England fought in Spanish territory. More info: https://youtu.be/M9phd8FU6IA
  • Mutiny of Aranjuez

    Mutiny of Aranjuez
    French troops entered Spain and Prince Fernando realised that the army intentions were to stay in Spain and not to invade Portugal. Fernando rebelled against his father in the Mutiny of Aranjuez. As a result, Godoy resigned and Carlos IV abdicated.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon met both father and son in Bayonne, where they gave the Spanish crown to his brother, Jose Bonaparte (Abdications of Bayonne).
    Jose I supporters were called afrancesados (Spanish liberals) and they tried to introduce the liberal revolutionary programme.
  • Popular revolve in Madrid

    Popular revolve in Madrid
  • Cortes of Cádiz

    Cortes of Cádiz
    In 1810, the junta Central Suprema was established to coordinate local and provincial juntas. Representatives of each junta met in Cádiz. They created the first Spanish constitution; the Constitution of 1812, which adopted national sovereignty, separation of powers and universal male suffrage.
  • Constitution of 1812

    Constitution of 1812
  • Six years of Absolutism (1814-1820)

    Six years of Absolutism (1814-1820)
    Fernando VII was an absolute monarch who repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms proposed by the Cádiz Cortes. Liberals were persecuted and the called the constitution as “La Pepa”. They organised pronunciamientos demanding its reinstatement, but they were not successful.
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    Reign of Fernando VII

    The reign of Fernando VII lasted from 1814 to 1833, when he died. It was divided into three phases: Six years of Absolutism (1814-1820), the Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833). More info about his reign: http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/en/restauracionAbsolutista.html
  • Liberal Triennium (1820-1823)

    Liberal Triennium (1820-1823)
    In 1820, a pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla was successful and the King was forced to reinstall the Constitution. The National Militia was created by liberals who defended the constitution and opposed absolutism.
    Fernando felt intimidated so he asked for help to other European absolute monarchs to defend Spain from liberals. In 1823, the Holy Alliance sent troops (the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) that restored absolutism.
  • Ominous Decade (1823-1833)

    Ominous Decade (1823-1833)
    The return to absolutism during the last 10 years of Fernando ́s reign annulled the legislation of the Liberal Triennium. However, Spain had political and economic problems which led into a crisis.
    Spain was in bankrupt and the independence of the colonies in America caused a major loss of revenue. They proposed privileged classes to pay taxes and overcome the economic crisis. However, most of this people were absolutists and making them pay the taxes meant losing their support.
  • Birth of Isabel II

    Birth of Isabel II
    In 1830, Isabel II was born and she was prevented of being queen because of Salic Law, which excluded women from the right to inherit the throne. To ensure his daughter was going to inherit the throne, Fernando VII repealed the Salic Law.
    Absolutists opposed this decision and argued that the King had to be Carlos, the brother of the King.
    Video: https://youtu.be/dST-Jp0bZ4w
  • Death of Fernando VII

    Death of Fernando  VII
    In 1833 Fernando VII died. Absolutists refused to recognise Isabel as the successor of the Crown, and instead backed Infante Carlos. Maria Cristina, Isabel ́s mother, acted as a regent on behalf of her daughter.
    Maria Cristina had the support of liberals (Isabelinos), who formed a moderate liberal government and a constitutional monarchy.
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    Regency of Maria Cristina

    She supported moderate liberals, who began making small reforms. A series of military uprisings and popular revolts forced her to hand power to progressive liberals. There was a liberal government leaded by Mendizábal.
    - Fiscal reforms: he said how and who had to pay taxes.
    - Manorialism: was dissolves, they didn ́t pay taxes to the lord.
    Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Christina_of_the_Two_Sicilies
  • Royal Statute

    The liberals asked Maria Cristina to form a constitution so she decided to govern with this statute. It was not like a constitution because it had not been made by the Cortes and voted by the congressmen. The law created the new Legislature, which was designed as a compromise between the existing Assembly, and a new Bicameral model based on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837: national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers and two chambers (senate + congress), and granted many rights and individual liberties.
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    Regency of Espartero

    In 1837 moderate liberals took the government. Maria Cristina was forced to step down and the progressive General Espartero was appointed regent. His authoritarian ideas created strong opposition and Isabel was Crowned as Isabel II in 1843, at the age of 13.
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    Moderate Decade

    The government was I hands of the Moderate Liberals, led by General Narváez. The Basque Country held fueros. Moderate liberals created many things during those years; for example, penal code, national education system and the Guardia Civil. They also made a Concordat with the Holy See, where they agreed to finance Church and stop privatisation of land.
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    There was a new Constitution in 1845, in which suffrage was restricted, civil liberties limited and sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown.
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    Progressive Biennium

    In 1854, there was a revolve led by General O ́Donnell, which brought the progressive liberals to power. They drafted a new Constitution in 1855 which was not approved and the government made major economic reforms.
    - Desamortización
    - General Railway Law and the Mining Act to boost railway system and mining industry.
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    System in decline (1854-1868)

    There was a crisis in Esparteros ́s government which made Isabel II give the government to O ́Donnell, who had created the Liberal Union (centralist party).
    From 1856, there was an alternation of power between unionists and moderates. The government remained authoritarian, acting without the authorisation of the Cortes and repressing opposition. Opposition of moderates grew and new political groups emerged. In 1866, Isabel ́s reign led to a social unrest and a new military revolt.
  • “La Gloriosa”

    “La Gloriosa”
    There were many problems in the country (illnesses, protests, etc) and people blamed the Crown. The Revolution of 1868 leaded by Prim, was called “La Gloriosa” and it caused the end of the Borbonic Dynasty in Spain with the forced exile of Isabel II.
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    Revolutionary six-year term

    In 1868, the crisis led to the glorious Revolution to overthrow Isabel II and establish a democratic political system.
    This revolution was triggered by progressives, democrats and unionists, mainly led by General Serrano (unionist). Revolutionary juntas were formed all over the country and in 1868 Isabel II was forced into exile.
  • Constitution 1869

    Constitution 1869
    The Cortes drafted a new Constitution in 1869 which defended national sovereignty, universal male suffrage, recognised individual ́s rights, decreed separation of Church and state and established a parliamentary monarchy.
  • Monarchy of Amadeo I (1870-1873)

    Monarchy of Amadeo I (1870-1873)
    Amadeo of Savoy was supported by progressives, unionists and democrats, and her opponents were the moderates and republicans and also some representatives of the Church who remained loyal to the Bourbons. There was another Carlist war when the Carlists declared Carlos VII as king and republicans aspired to a republic. In 1873, Amadeo I abdicated a left the country.
  • Constitution of 1873

    Constitution of 1873
    The Cortes drafted a new federal Constitution that divided legislative powers between the central government and the federal republic, but it was never established.
  • First Republic

    First Republic
    When Amadeo I abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchists and did not support the new way of government. The lower social classes were happy with the result of the vote and republicans prepared social and economic reforms. The republic had four presidents but a series of problems made its proper establishment impossible.