HIS 1111

Timeline created by Tink
  • Japan invades mainland China

    Japan invades mainland China
    This pauses the civil war going on in China. Americans support both Chiang Hai-Shek and Mao (dixie mission (1944)). and USSR supports Mao (even though Stalin low-key hates Mao and is kind of trying to have an ally with Chiang Hai-Shek, but whatever).
  • Conception of UN

    Together by US, Britain, and Soviet representatives
  • Percentages Agreement

    Secret meeting between Churchill and Stalin to divide Europe post war between Allies and Soviets. Divides Europe into spheres of influence.
  • Greece falling apart

    After the Germans left the Greeks did not know who should be in charge and Britain had to step in to stop complete anarchy and held a supervised referendum to determine whether or not they wanted royalty. Left boycotted. Royalty came back.
  • Rise in Greek Communists

    During the Turkish crisis, large support in Northern Greece close to Yugoslavia for communism. (with support from Soviet Union + Yugolsavia, Albania, and Bulgaria). When the British and US started to apply pressure to that area, USSR gave up and retracted social pressure and encourage cooperation with the pro-capitalist government.
  • Yalta Conference

    US, UK, Soviet Union got together to discuss the division of Europe past the war OFFICIALLY. Roosevelt wants Soviet Union to join in the war in Asia as well (doesn't really work). Allies also wanted a free Poland, but that didn't work because Eastern Germany becomes Soviet and so does Poland.
  • Foundation of UN

    delegates from 50 different states at the beginning. US, USSR, Britain, France, and China hold permanent representation on the Security Council (and still to this day).
  • End of WWII

    Allies decided to occupy Germany as to avoid this all happening again. British, French, Us, and Soviet zones with active military presence. Decided against reparations in the west because that was the issue leading to WW2, but Soviet drained East Germany of everything they had (and some of Western Germany as well). Stalin upset because East mostly just farm land but West is industrialized. Zones were completely cut off from each other and made trade within Germany difficult.
  • Soviet-Turkey agreement

    USSR presented demands of substantial infringement on Turkish soveringty: cession of territory given back to Turkey after WWI, and suggested joint sovereignty of the Turkish straights, and the leasing of Soviet bases on its shores to ensure its defence. US was like nah bitch we got nuclear bombs don't try us.
  • Gousenko Affair

    This Canadian dude exposed himself as being a russian spy and exposed all of his coworker which started the red scare in Canada
  • Vietnam declares independence

    Lots of influence from the US in hopes that they will support this declaration of independence. Enters talks with France for little while but war breaks out because France does not want to give up Indochina yet.
  • Military imbalance in Europe

    from 1945 - 1948 USSR was the largest military power in Europe (and Asia) where even the combined forces of the other European and North American nations could not compete (after the war). (US had only a volunteer army during peacetime. No way to get public support to maintain a large army after WWII) This causes an unequal and "void" of power in Europe where Germany used to be before and during WWII which lead to capitalist paranoia about soviet and communist takeover of Europe (and the world).
  • Long-Telegram

    George Kennan, American affairs dude in Moscow, wrote a long ass telegram to the States saying this is what we need to do in order to limit the influence of communism in the world.
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    Stalin cuts off transportation from East to West and vice versa. Churchill (no longer prime minister) gives a speech saying that an "iron curtain" has fallen on Eastern Europe. Gives this speech in Fulton Missouri, on stage with him is Truman.
  • Baruch Plan

    Here UN we'll give you our plans for the atomic bomb and that way no one can have them. And you should ban the development of atomic weapons. Soviet Union did not support it so it didn't go through.
  • Byrnes's Speech

    Secretary of State, gives a speech in Stuttgart about giving the German people back their government and combining both West and East together. Soviets saw this as an act of aggression and thought this would lead to remilitarization of Western Europe.
  • Merging of British and American zones in Germany

    This is actually the date.
  • Britain stopped foreign support of Greece

    Due to the use of external loans from the US to fund food and fuel rather than investing in exports (which is what it was intended for) and because of "the worst weather conditions in recored history, Britain no longer had the money to maintain financial support of Greece. US took over instead because GOTTA SAVE THEM GREEKS FROM THE SOVIETS. (even though they wouldn't get involved before the Brits withdrawal).
  • Truman Doctorine

    After Britain's withdrawl of support from more than just Greece to focus on national economy, Truman took over that job. Greece and Turkey both got a shit ton of money and military assistance. (also Iran)
  • Dunkirk Treaty

    Dunkirk Treaty
    symbolizes franco-british friendship. Promise of common defence. Inclusion of Britain into Europe.
  • Expulsion of Communist parties in France and Italy

    Communist parties in France and Italy got kicked out while continuing their support and connection with the Americans and capitalism. (spring)
    Communist-Controlled labour organizations failed to perform strikes and disorders. (fall)
  • The Marshall Plan

    Economic recovery plan suggested by George C. Marshall used in Western Germany in the French, British, and US zones to boost the national economy with "massive American assistance on the basis of permanent economic co-operation among themselves." Required at least semi openness of financial books and the use of the financial aid to buy american exports (neither of which USSR wanted to do so they just didn't).
  • Creation of GATT

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade became a for for periodic negotiations to reduce the bewildering array go trade restrictions that had accumulated over the years. has a "most-favoured-nation" clause where if one agreement is set up bilaterally it needs to include those same rates to all other countries in GATT. Increases international exchange and caused significant influence in reducing stagnation of the 1940s-1970s.
  • Mr. X Article

    Mr. X Article
    Public publication of Kennan's long-telegram. Source of how the US is dealing with Soviets now and in the future.
  • Indian Independence

  • Rio pact of September

    First regional agreement as part of Article 51 in the UN Charter. (being able to have bilateral and transnational agreements beyond being part of the UN)
  • Creation of COMINFORM

    As a response to the Marshall plan working so well and successor of COMINTERN. successfully got rid of non-communist political forces in Eastern Europe. Did not create such great economic prosperity as the Marshall plan.
  • Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia

  • Declaration of Israel

    Britain leaves after they can no longer finically support their mandate in Palestine anymore and the British and UN partition plans weren't getting any support so...
  • Vandenberg Resolution

    Vandenberg Resolution
    message from the senate saying that America would be interested in participating in common defence (in Europe). Shows support from the senate not just the president.
  • USSR + US fight for support of German citizens

    (Pre- USSR took german machinery, power plants, railway tracks, and coal and raw materials) USSR argued that US was deindustrializing Germany and French were taking Rhineland. The US was like nah bitch, we ain't doing that but to win back over the German people they increased economic rehabilitation of Germany to contribute to the recovery of Europe. US also refused to recognize the boarder that the USSR placed between Poland and Germany making up for the area that Poland lost to the USSR.
  • Selective Service Act (conscription)

  • Brussels Pact / Treaty of Brussels

    Brussels Pact / Treaty of Brussels
    Expansion and addition onto the Dunkirk Treaty. Includes France, Great Britain, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The added countries don't have strong military power so this is more symbolic than military based.
    Signed: 17th March, 1948.
    Effective: 25th August 1948
  • Formation of NATO

    Formation of NATO
    Based on communal hatred towards the soviet union and need to protect the world from the "old"
  • US joins NATO

    US joins NATO
  • USSR explodes their first atomic bomb

    Sooner than the US or the world anticipated because the Soviets had spies in the Manhattan project.
  • China is communist

    China is communist
    West sees this as soviet aggression and the take over of China. But really not. Mao Communism is very different from Soviet Union communism.
  • NSC-68 report

    Top 3 recommendations:
    - prompt development of the thermonuclear (hydrogen) bomb
    - expand American and West European forces
    - mobilize Americas economic resources to sustain military buildup
    - tighten bonds between members of the Western alliance system
  • Moscow-Beijing Axis

    Moscow-Beijing Axis
    Mao is broke so he swallows his pride and goes to Moscow to ask for help. He doesn't get very much and in return USSR get access to a lot of natural resources and a train that carries directly onto soviet territory.
  • Kauls Fuchs

    Actual soviet spy who worked for the US government. Shared information to the Soviets about nuclear science (and this was just before the Soviets exploded their first bomb) Found and accused. Outed a list of other soviet spies. Increased the domestic fear of the Soviet influence. McCarthy used this fear to fuel is crazy speeches.
  • Schuman Plan

    Began with the combination of steel and coal production in France, Western Germany, and Italy under a single authority. (Britain didn't want to join because it had good deals with the US and the commonwealth.) Eventually lead to a community of free trade.
    - Supported by the idea that if Germany was integrated into a larger European economy, that they would be less likely to make war on its partners and similarly if it was incorporated into a transnational army, it would defend Western Europe.
  • Korean War begins

    Korean War begins
    Kim II Sung gets permission from Stalin to invade South (Syngman Rhee). (because Dean Acheson does not include South Korea as part of the defence permitter) Uses the armes left behind by the red army when they retreated. US was not ready for this.
  • UN authorizes a response to N. Korea invasion

    UN authorizes a response to N. Korea invasion
    Truman goes to the UN security council for help against North Korea's invasion. Soviets are still boycotting because of Chiang Hai-Shek, so US gets the green light. MacArthur put in charge of military response. Attacks from tip where US forces were pushed too but also behind the N. Korea lines in Pusan. Works too well and almost reaches Chinese boarder.
  • China intervenes in the Korean War

    China intervenes in the Korean War
    Zhou Enlai (prime minister of communist china) says don't come closer or else. and then sends thousands of "volunteers" across the Yen river into North Korea. MacArthur asks to nuke China. Truman says you're crazy and fires him. End of Korean war. Back to original borders.
  • India is a boss

    PM Nehru is an absolute boss. Takes advantage of Soviet and US trying to "help" countries and makes deals with both of them
    Jan. 1952 gets a five year agreement with Washington for development aid
    Dec. 1953 gets a five year trade deal with Soviet Union.
    June. 1955 long term agreement with USSR gov. for economic and technical assistance
    Nurhu keeps neutrality and works towards the rest of the third world to maintain neutrality and not get sucked up into this influence war.
  • Military Coup in Egypt

    Military Coup in Egypt
    Overthrow King Farouk, a corrupt king on good terms with the Brits. Replaced by military general, Mohammed Naguib. Becomes president. Popular.
  • Eisenhower takes over

    Truman's term is over. Eisenhower is elected president. Eisenhower takes a more aggressive approach to dealing with USSR. "challenged all foreign nations to choose bwetten enlisting in the American crusade for global righteousness and submitting to Soviet domination"
  • Stalin dies

    Of a stroke (like Lenin).
  • First Soviet Hydrogen bomb exploded

    but they don't have the technology to transport it yet so it can only go as far as just past the Eastern border, and certainly not all the way to America
  • "New look"

    Eisenhower promised less government spending and a balanced budget, but also was increasing military involvement abroad which contradict each other. To fix that, instead of investing in the army and the navy, Eisenhower increased the spending on the American nuclear arsenal and delivery system (transportation but also keeping bombers (if not bombs) in allied countries bordering the USSR). lead to MAD
  • Naguib arrested

    Naguib arrested
    Naguib arrested by Nasser who is also popular so there isn't that big of a difference for the people of Egypt. Nationalistic. Wants to create a pan Arabian empire. Supports Algeria independence. Nationalizes Suez Canal. Does not support Israel.
  • Battle of Diem Bien Phu

    France (Henri Javarre) was like haha we will put a base in your territory and you will have to fight a normal war. we are surrounded by mountains in a valley so we are safe. Vietnamese take apart guns and climb them to the top of the mountain to fire on French. French under siege for 2 months. can only fly in supplies. Really failing. Resolved by Geneva conference
  • French-Indochina War Armistice signed

    At the Geneva convention. Soviets and Chinese were supposed to back Ho Chi Minh and didn't so Vietnam gets divided into north and south. Ho Chi Minh is leader of North but supported in South as well. Supposed to be elections in two years, but because of continued support for Ho chi Minh, UN (US) decides not to hold these elections... leads to Vietnam war. (Ngo Din Diem is leader of South Vietnam)
  • Taiwan Straights Crisis

    Taiwan Straights Crisis
    US pledges to defend Taiwan. Fighting over the two islands off main coast china: Quemoy and Matsu. But US brings a navy fleet for around Taiwan and since Mao doesn't have a navy, he can't do anything and this shuts down the aggression here for a while. (Comes back up in 4 years).
  • Establishment of SEATO

    Southeast asia treaty organization. After French Indochina war. Introduced by Dulles, West trying to protect Asia from USSR and China communism influences. Similar to NATO minus the automatic defence collaboration. Includes: US, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, and the Philippines. Countries receive a pledge of protection and technical assistance to promote their econ dev. and military capibility.
  • Western European Union

    Bussels Pact expanded to include Germany and Italy and is now called Western European Union. Suggested by British Forgein Secretary as a response to France rejecting "European Defence Community" because Britain was not involved enough and obviously such a community is needed.
  • Agreement to Leave Suez Canal

    Agreement to Leave Suez Canal
    Brits agree to take their military out of Suez Canal in two years. Bye Bye
  • Remilitarization of Germany

    NATO could still not compete with the red army, and the nearest part to the USSR, Western germany, was defenceless other than the foreign troops. So instead of continuing to pay for the defence of Western Germany, just let them pay for it. Not allowed atomic, biological, or chemical weapons though. This army could only exist in NATO.
  • Revival of USSR's anti-imperialism policy

    Britain and France withdraw from their colonial influence in the middle east and so the Soviet Union tries to come in trying to rescue them. These countries are offered with a "US vs USSR" or neutrality. None choose USSR.
  • Egypt is an (evil) boss

    Egypt is an (evil) boss
    Naser works along with Nehru with the neutralization of the third world. Plays the two sides off each other to get better deals. BUT with the motivation of having his own empire therefore evil.
  • Britain joins Baghdad Pact

    To bridge the gap between SEATO and NATO. Turkish initiative. Includes: Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and Britain (involved because of their military bases in the Persian Gulf). Countries receive a pledge of protection and technical assistance to promote their econ dev. and military capibility.
  • West Germany joins NATO

    West Germany joins NATO
  • Warsaw Pact Organization

    Soviet Union + 7 East European satellites agree to a 2-year mutual defence treaty + formal military alliance. In response to NATO growing in so much power (especially Western Germany).
  • Austrian State Treaty signed

    Everyone leaves Austria. Austria must stay neutral in the cold war.
  • First Summit Conference: Geneva

    First time East and west meet in person since beginning of the cold war. (It's been 10 years) Soviet, France, UK, US. High point of the trend towards relaxation of west-east tensions. Discussions that lead to nothing about capping military size (USSR), open skies (US, who then do this anyways secretly, USSR refuses because they are behind in the arms race but don't want to let the US know), letting Germany reunite...
  • Second East-West meeting for more serious discussions

    Einsehower couldn't come. Dulles came instead. Dulles saw soviet cooperation as a ploy to make the West trust the East more and then psych. So that didn't go well.
  • Re-evaluation of Foreign and Domestic Soviet Policy

    Requested by Khrushchev near the end of his term. Exposed those who wanted to continue what Stalin was doing. Lead to de-stalinization as a political victory to prove primacy over the political party for Khrushchev. And also USSR is too stretched out and economically counter productive. So to actually be a successful country, we have to stop all of that. But taking down Stalin is just an extra thing because politics. This lead to massive pushback against communism in Poland and Hungary.
  • Khrushchev's Secret Speech

    Addresses political leaders in the USSR. Exposes Stalin's crimes. Criticizes Stalin's way of ruling. introduces destalinization. two motives: political gain, I am a better leader than Stalin; and work towards a better country and for better efficiency to boost economy. US gets ahold of this somehow and leaks it to the world. All Warsaw Pact countries see this as different and take advantage.
  • Dissolution of COMINFORM

    Part of de-stalinization and liberating eastern europe from Soviet Union.
  • Polish Labour Unrest

    thousands of workers demonstrated for better economic conditions.
  • British forces leave Suez Canal

    British forces leave Suez Canal
    yep. Goodbye. We'll leave as long as we still have access to the Suez Canal because it is the lifeline to our falling apart empire. And we are allowed to retake it if the our access is threatened.
  • Financial Support Withdrawal for Aswan Dam

    Financial Support Withdrawal for Aswan Dam
    Because Egypt is playing the Us and the Soviets off of each other, the US gets annoyed with Egypt after they sign an arms deal with Soviets and withdraw their finical support for the construction of the Aswan Dam which was supposed to be the place where the Egyptian gov gets funds (because they're low-key bankrupt). (Egypt also recognizes PRC and it's not good for American cotton growers). Britain and World bank also pull funding.
  • Nationalization of the Suez Canal

    Nationalization of the Suez Canal
    Charges for the use of the Suez Canal. This goes against the British agreement. The previous investors in the Suez Canal (French and British) complain to their governments.
  • Polish October

    Nationwide expression of resistance to Soviet interference in Poland's internal affairs. So Khrushchev flies to Warsaw to plead for the continuation of pro-Soviet policies but Gomulka was like "no, instead we're gonna follow "national communism" in Poland." Khreshchev brings tanks in. Gomulka is like "you don't want to do that" + gives civilians guns. Khrushchev gives up and supports Poland because at least they are still communist with no elections and are in the warsaw pact and allies.
  • Suez Intervention

    Suez Intervention
    France and Britain and Israel work together to attack Egypt to get the Suez Canal back. Israel attacks first. Then France drops in personnel to seemingly hold the two armies apart, but really just want the Canal. Soviets back Egypt and so does theUS *shock* because they were not included in the plan so everyone goes back to normal.
  • Hungary's attempted seperaism

    Following Poland, Hungarian PM (liberal communist), included non-communist elements in policies. Got permission from USSR to be independent. Soviet troops left (Nov. 1). On the day they were leaving, PM announced that Hungary would be leaving the Warsaw Pact. USSR saw this as threatening the buffer between the West and the USSR so they reinvaded on Nov 4th with a ton of troops and set up a puppet government with the help of the army. Could do this because Allies distracted with the Suez Canal.
  • Soviet Aid to Egypt

    Soviet Aid to Egypt
    Soviets help aid the financing of the Aswan Dam which is a success and fix the canal that Egypt ruined. and continue arms deals with Egypt as well.
  • Eisenhower Doctorine

    US is worried about the spread of influence of Nasser and Soviet Union in Middle East. Offer of economic assistance, military assistance if being taken over by soviets, and to protect territorial integrity.
  • European Economic Community (EEC)

    Because the Schuman plan worked so well, let's expand the same idea past coal and steel and only France and Germany to everyone in EDC and for all trade. Again Britain didn't want to join because they have a special relationship with the US. Had a whole council of members and parliament to oversee the smooth economic integration. Supported by most because nationalism is not wanted.
  • Reorganization of Bagdad Pact to CENTO

  • World Fair in Moscow

    Invites a bunch of people to come show off their nations' things. Nixon comes (vice president to Eisenhower). Meets with Khrushchev in the American kitchen set up. Nixon says you're beating us at space, but are beating you at dishwashers, and Khrushchev is like no how dare you we are better in every way.
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    Chinese civil war

    Mao (communists completely separate from Soviet Union) vs Chiang Hai-Shek Nationalists
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    Confrontation between US and USSR in Iran

    Iran was divided into the different spheres of influence after WWI, but with the collapse of the tsarist empire, Britain took control of all of Iran (and advantage of their oil supply and geographic location). USSR tried to influence and supported communist groups in northern Iran who eventually demanded separation from Iran to join the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. After taking it to the UN, USSR removed their army and Iran did not support the separation. Begins tensions between East/West.
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    Chinese civil war resumes

    Russia low-key helps both sides. US backs Chiang Hai-Shek until General Joseph Stilwell realizes Shek is useless and helping him is only delaying his failure. When Chiang Hai-Shek fails, he flees to Taiwan with some of his supporters and continues to say he is the leader of China when he really isn't, maintains the UN seat (leading USSR to boycott), and every once in a while attacks mainland. (also has two islands off mainland that are important later) (actual date)
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    Stalin Purges Eastern Europe

    Stalin being paranoid that people don't like him and will revolt against him. So let's starve and over work them and terrorize them and yay.
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    Berlin Blockade

    Closed access to the highway and railway for "construction" for a year. Didn't stop Britain or US. They just air dropped supplies into the city to help maintain their western population. This is a win for America because Stalin is seen as evil and starving little children from propaganda and America is seen being generous and using their large economic status to help Germany of all places.
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    Korean War

    North invaded the south with the support of USSR. Easily resolved during negotiations after Stalin died.
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    USSR without leader

    After Stalin died there was no clear successor and Stalin had gotten rid of all political leaders because he didn't want to have anyone to get in the way of his complete authority. Until 1956 there was a committee in charge of the USSR, but no one really was a leader and nothing really got done. Lots of instability within the country. CIA thought the new leader would be either the Military leader, the head of the KGB, or the Political party leader. None of these were the right guess.
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    Khrushchev visits US

    Invited by Eisenhower after the world fair. Chills with him in his cabin and calmly talks about politics. They decide to not decide anything about Berlin or another year (when the next president is elected). Then Khrushchev goes off and tours the US (Hollywood, cows)