Founding Fathers August 11th

  • Massacre at Mystic

    Massacre at Mystic
    The Massacre at Mystic (Also known as the Pequot Massacre) involved a group of allied Mohegan natives and Puritan settlers attacking Pequot villages. The Pequot had killed 13 villagers before the spring of that year. However, the last straw was when they attacked a village and killed 9 people and kidnapped 3 girls.The attack force was Led by John Mason who went massacred the inhabitants of three Pequot villages and enslaving the survivors. Only a few escaped to join neighboring tribes.
  • The Scalp Act

    The Scalp Act
    The Scalp Act rewarded Pennsylvanian citizens for turning in Native American scalps. If the scalp was from an adult male they would be paid $150 per scalp and if it was from a preteen of either gender the scalp was worth $130. The purpose of the act was to wipe out the remaining natives in the area.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was an event of civil unrest amongst American colonists in 1773. The event was caused by the British raising the taxes on imported essentials such as tea. The colonists were at an uproar not only because of the increased tax but also because of their lack of representation in the British parliament.
  • The Battles of Lexington and Concord

    The Battles of Lexington and Concord
    After several years of civil unrest due to unfair British policies, Americans were starting to rebel against English law and officials. To prevent this from escalating, The Governor of Massachusetts ordered his troops to take away the colonist's muskets and powder that was being stored in the town of Concord. This backfired and led to an all out battle which ended up being a victory for the new rebellion and also kick started the Revolutionary war.
  • The signing of the Declaration of Independence

    The signing of the Declaration of Independence
    On August 2nd, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed. There were 56 signatures on the document, the largest of which was the (At the time) president of the Continental Congress, John Hancock.
  • The Winter at Valley Forge

    The Winter at Valley Forge
    After a crushing defeat in Philadelphia, George Washington moved his troops into their winter camp at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. When the 12,000 troops arrived at the encampment they were already hungry, tired, and lacking morale but after a few weeks they started being plagued with disease on top of running out of basic supplies such as food and shoes. However thanks to Washington and Baron Von Steuben the remaining men came out of the encampment on February 28th as a well trained unit.
  • Benedict Arnold turns traitor

    Benedict Arnold turns traitor
    Benedict Arnold started his career as a revolutionary when he led a raid against a British powder store in 1775. After many successful battles, Benedict becomes regarded as one of the best generals in the Colonial army. However, after having many of what he deemed inferiors promoted ahead of him, he starts leaking important info to the British under the terms that he would get 20,000 pounds and refuge in London. After his handler is caught and executed, Benedict flees London and never returns.
  • The Battle of Cowpens

    The Battle of Cowpens
    Continental general Daniel Morgan was being chased across the Southern Carolina countryside by British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton until he came to the flooded Pacolet River. After realizing that he could not cross, Morgan set up a defensive position at an area called the Cowpens. The Cowpens was a well known cattle grazing area that also included a crossroad. During the ensuing battle 110 British soldiers and 12 colonial soldiers were killed. The colonials came out victorious.
  • The Battle of Yorktown

    The Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown was the last battle of the Revolutionary War. The siege began with American and French forces trapping a British general by the name of Cornwallis in Yorktown, Virginia which was located in a Peninsula. The American troops prevented Cornwallis from escaping via sea and the French navy prevented reinforcements and supplies from being sent by setting up a sea blockade. The siege lasted 3 weeks and, after running severely low on supplies, Cornwallis finally surrendered.
  • The 3/5ths Compromise

    The 3/5ths Compromise
    The 3/5ths compromise stated that all "non free persons" be counted as 3/5ths of a person when referring to matters of taxation and congress seats.
  • The Presidential Inauguration of George Washington

    The Presidential Inauguration of George Washington
    George Washington's inauguration was an incredibly important historic event. It marked the first time in U.S. history that a proper leader was elected. It was said that George Washington was more nervous on that day than he ever was on the battlefield.
  • Washington's Farewell Adress

    Washington's Farewell Adress
    Around 3 years before his death, George Washington wrote a letter to the people of the United States warning of political parties, sectionalism, and general separatism. He believed these things would divide Americans and turn them against each other.
  • The Death of George Washington

    The Death of George Washington
    On December 14th, 1799 George Washington woke his wife up from her slumber to inform her that he was not feeling well and had trouble standing. The day before this happened Washington reportedly remained in his wet clothes so he could arrive on time for dinner after riding his horse through the rain. Once doctors arrived to treat him they bled him of 40 percent of his blood. This along with the other old world treatments that the doctors performed on him led to his death.
  • Election Day, 1800

    Election Day, 1800
    The election of 1800 is special compared to others because it was the very first election where both parties campaigned for the position. Also this election would result in the president being able to choose their own vice president instead of having their rival take the position.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    Marbury vs Madison was a court case held in 1803. The case was about the belief that a court could ignore congressional law if it went against the constitution. This basically established the idea of judicial review which is a way to stop law makers from enforcing unconstitutional laws.
  • Slave Trade Ends in the United States

    Slave Trade Ends in the United States
    The The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 does what the title says, prevents further importation of slaves into the U.S. This effectively ended the slave trade in the U.S. and was one of many steps needed to outlaw slavery completely.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought between the U.S. Expeditionary force (Led by William Henry Harrison) and the Shawnee Indians. The Expeditionary force set up camp outside Tecumseh's main village. They then set up a rectangular defensive position with Harrison having a small reserve of cavalry with him. The Indians attacked early that morning and the fighting was done in close quarters. Eventually the Americans counter attacked and destroyed the village.
  • The USS Constitution defeats the HMS Guerriere

    The USS Constitution defeats the HMS Guerriere
    While on a voyage to Nova Scotia, Captain Isaac Hull was onboard the U.S.S. Constitution when he spotted the British HMS Guerriere. After raising its flag the Constitution engaged the rival ship, heavily damaging it and capturing its crew. One crew member recounted how the ships hull was deflecting the Guerriere's cannon balls, Earning the nickname "Old Ironsides".
  • The Battle of Baltimore

    The Battle of Baltimore
    On September 12th, 1814 British forces tried to invade the city of Baltimore, Maryland. They were repelled by U.S. forces and their commander, Arthur Brooke, was killed in the battle.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    After learning of a British plot to seize New Orleans, General Andrew Jackson rushed to the city and gathered a rag tag army of frontiersman, near-do-wells, townsfolk, Choctaw Indians, free blacks, and even a crew of pirates. The battle that ensued was extremely one sided with Jackson's throw-together army killing 2,000 British (3 of which were generals along with 7 colonels) in the span of 30 minutes. Only 100 of Jackson's men died in the fighting.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was a piece of legislation passed in 1820 that stated Louisiana Purchase lands located north of the 36º 30’ parallel were going to be free states and could not become slave states. This act was deemed unconstitutional in 1857.
  • The Election of Andrew Jackson

    The Election of Andrew Jackson
    During his presidential campaign, Andrew Jackson faced a lot of competition from politically seasoned candidates such as John Quincy Adams. However, his reputation as a war hero gained him massive amounts of public favor and he ended up winning by a landslide. Those who opposed him where those who supported the Bank of America, mainly rich politicians.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830. It allowed the President to forcibly remove Indians from their land so long as they were granted some land West of the Mississippi River in return. A few tribes willingly left but a lot of them resisted the government.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    In 1831, the U.S. government sent troops to remove Choctaw Indians from their land and transport them to a reserve hundreds of miles away. This process was repeated with several other tribes and around 4,000 of the 15,000 that were forced off of their land did not live through the trip and it was reported that the Army would either leave behind or shoot those that could not keep up.
  • Nat Turner Rebellion

    Nat Turner Rebellion
    In the August of 1831, the slave Nat Turner led a revolt against the town of Southampton, Virginia. He, along with 200 slaves, killed 60 whites most of whom were women and children. This resulted in half of them being killed by vigilantes and militia men, 19 (including Turner) being executed, and the rest being exiled to Africa, This resulted in the Virginia government considering ending slavery, however they instead passed more restrictions against all blacks whether they were free or not.
  • The Battle of the Alamo

    The Battle of the Alamo
    During the early stages of the Texas rebellion, Texas forces seized an old fort that they called the Alamo. Among the volunteers at the fort were legendary frontiersman Davey Crockett and renowned knife maker Jim Bowie. Soon after the fort was taken by the rebells, Mexican forces led by General Santa Anna laid siege to the fort. The Texans fought well but their regiment of 200 volunteers was soon outnumbered by Santa Anna's army; which is estimated to have had 6,000 soldiers under it's banner.
  • Mexico loses California, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Mexico loses California, New Mexico, and Arizona
    As par of a treaty with the United States, Mexico lost over half of its land in the Mexican - American War.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act

    The Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act required that fugitive slaves be given back to their owners even if said slave was in a free state. This act also made the federal government hold responsibility of the recapture of slaves.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    In the Dred Scott Decision the Supreme court decided that although Dred Scott was living in a free state was not entitled to his freedom and that African Americans were never citizens of the U.S. and that they never could become citizens. They also declared the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional.
  • The Dead Rabbits Riot

    The Dead Rabbits Riot
    On July 4th, 1857 the Irish Dead Rabbit gang was going to raid the Anti immigrant Bowery Boy's clubhouse. This resulted in a clash between the 2 gangs which over 1,000 people were involved in. The Municipal Police and the Metropolitan Police then got involved in the fight with each department choosing a different side. After 2 days and around 8 deaths the New York militia broke the fight up.
  • South Carolina secedes from the United States

    South Carolina secedes from the United States
    On December 20th, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the United States of America. They cited the reason for doing so was because they felt that the newly elected President, Abraham Lincoln, was very anti slavery and that they felt that he was gong to ban slavery out right. After their succession from the Union many more states joined suite and succeeded. This would eventually lead these states to unite under one banner. Thus, the Confederate States of America was born.
  • Abraham Lincoln Elected President

    Abraham Lincoln Elected President
    Lincoln was elected as president on November 6th, 1860 although he was not inaugurated until March 4th, 1861. Many people doubted him, claiming he was too inexperienced to lead the U.S. during the turmoil it was experiencing. They were proven wrong, though. Lincoln proved instrumental to the war effort and set a good base for rebuilding the country.
  • The First Battle of Bull Run

    The First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run was the first battle of the American Civil War. It started with 20,000 Confederate troops marching on the Union's capital, Washington D.C. The rebel's were met with a Union force of 35,000 at a nearby creek called Bull Run. The Confederates the battle, suffering 1,750 causalities and killing 3,000 Union soldiers. This battle illustrated that the Civil War was going to be a lot longer (And bloodier) than was previously thought.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation stated that all slaves (Including all slaves in the Southern States) are free from now on. It was signed during the 3rd year of the Civil War by Abraham Lincoln.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    During a campaign to lead his forces North, Robert E. Lee learns of a pursuing Union force (Led by George Mead) not far behind him. He then moves his troops to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. As expected, Union forces finally catch up to them. After a few days of fighting, Confederate troops are ravaged by Union artillery and infantry and are forced to retreat back to the South. Union casualties were around 23,000 and Confederate casualties numbered 29,000.
  • The Treaty at Appomattox Courthouse

    The Treaty at Appomattox Courthouse
    After a terrible defeat at Appomattox Courthouse, Robert E. Lee concedes defeat on the behalf of the Confederate States of America. He then goes to a nearby house to sign a treat y, officially ending the war.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th amendment was ratified in the December of 1865. Section 1 states "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." Section 2 reads "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
  • The Ku Klux Klan is Established

    The Ku Klux Klan is Established
    In 1865, the infamous racist group named the Klu Klux Klan was founded by a group of Confederate veterans. It was formed to fight against efforts to re build the Souther U.S. and increase the rights of the African Americans in the South. The Klan's first Grand Wizard, Nathan Bedford Forrest, tried to disband the secret society after becoming upset with its excessive violence.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th amendment was adopted on July 9th, 1868. It basically states that everyone that was either born in the U.S. or "naturalized" in it were granted citizenship. It also stated that anyone who has participated in insurrection will not be able to get a position in the government unless 2/3rds of congress approves.
  • John D. Rockefeller Creates Standard Oil

    John D. Rockefeller Creates Standard Oil
    In 1863 John D. Rockefeller and a few other associates of his invested money in an oil refinery located in Cleveland, Ohio. 2 years later in 1865 John took out a loan and bought out some of his partner's shares. In the following years, John expanded his business and acquired new partners. In 1870 John created Standard Oil. Standard Oil bought out many other oil and kerosene companies until it became a monopoly. Years later in 1911, the supreme court decided to force the company to split up.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th amendment grants U.S. citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous status as a slave.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Patents the Telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell Patents the Telephone
    On the 7th of March, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone and only beat the other inventor seeking the same patent by 1 hour. This would forever change how people communicated long distances.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The Battle of Little Bighorn (Also known as Custer's Last Stand) was fought between the U.S. Cavalry (Led by General Custer) and Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne warriors in the Montana territory. General Custer's biggest mistake was marching into the valley where the natives were residing and attack with only 200 men. Unbeknownst to him the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne had 3,000 warriors who were ready to attack. By the time an hour had passed Custer and all of his men were dead.
  • Ellis Island Opens

    Ellis Island Opens
    At the beginning of 1892 Ellis Island processed its first immigrant, a 17 year old girl named Annie Moore who came in from Ireland.
  • The Great Oklahoma Land Race

    The Great Oklahoma Land Race
    In 1889 the U.S. government let people settle what was previously Native American territory. The government only gave the Natives 7 weeks to prepare to leave their homes.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    In 1890, the U.S. government sent an armed force to disarm the Ghost dancers at Pine Ridge. These Ghost Dancers believed that all the ill that had befell on them was due to them accepting the ways of the settlers and that if they returned to their roots the creator would destroy all non Indians. After disarming most of the population, a soldier went to forcefully disarm an Indian which ended up with his rifle being set off and the soldiers firing. A massacre ensued with 150 Indians dying.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
    Plessy vs. Ferguson was a court case that determined that segregation was not unconstitutional. This resulted in Jim Crow laws becoming common place in most parts of the U.S.
  • The Sinking of the USS Maine

    The Sinking of the USS Maine
    While docked in Havana, a U.S. ship, dubbed the U.S.S. Maine, was sunk by an explosion which killed around 2/3 of its 354 crew members. Even to this day no one really knows who was responsible for the attack but not long after the ship was destroyed the United States declared war on Spain; claiming that they were responsible for the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine. We now call what ensued the Spanish-American War which lasted for around 9 months.
  • Battle of the Philippines

    Battle of the Philippines
    On May 1st, 1898 The American Navy attacked a Spanish naval fleet who were guarding the Philippines from Ally forces. This let the United States invade the Islands with its ground forces to subdue any remaining hostile forces.
  • The Wizard of Oz (Book) is Published

    The Wizard of Oz (Book) is Published
    In 1900 the Wizard of Oz was written by a man named L. Frank Baum. It would go on to be one of the most popular children's stories of all time.
  • J.P. Morgan Founds U.S. Steel

    J.P. Morgan Founds U.S. Steel
    In 1901 J.P. Morgan founded U.S. Steel. It would go on to be the countries first billion dollar company and would control around 60% of the steel market.
  • Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President of the United States

    Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President of the United States
    In 1901, Theodore. Roosevelt became president of the United States at age 43. He was a man of many talents and filled with experience, He was a decorated veteran of the Civil War, captured an outlaw, was a big game hunter, and was also very in-tune with what the people of the United State needed. He busted up monopolies, made an immigration agreement with Japan, made sure that the Panama Canal would be built, and many other things.
  • Ford Motor Company is Founded

    Ford Motor Company is Founded
    In 1903 Henry Ford opened the Ford Motor company. Not only did ford build a new means of transportation but he also used assembly lines to make them. Soon almost every machine was using them. Assembly lines greatly improved the rate of production for products. This not only changed the way people traveled but also the way people mass produced things.
  • Ida Tarbell Publishes Her Article About Standard Oil

    Ida Tarbell Publishes Her Article About Standard Oil
    Ida Tarbell researched and documented the questionable business practices that Standard Oil used. This eventually lead to standard oil being broken up into around 30 countries.
  • The 16th Amendment is Passed

    The 16th Amendment is Passed
    The 16th amendment was passed in 1909 and allows the government to collect federal income tax no matter what each state has to sat about it.
  • The 17th Amendment is Passed

    The 17th Amendment is Passed
    The 17th amendment allowed people to directly vote for senators so long as they were residents of the state.
  • The Adoption of the Star Spangled Banner as the National Anthem

    The Adoption of the Star Spangled Banner as the National Anthem
    The Star Spangled Banner was adopted as the U.S. national anthem on March 3rd, 1931 by order of President Herbert Hoover. The song was written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key and was based on the events he saw during the siege of a U.S. fort in Maryland during the War of 1812. The song is about how U.S. soldiers never let the national flag aka "The Star Spangled Banner" fall to the ground during the battle.
  • The Empire State Building Opens

    The Empire State Building Opens
    The Empire state building was originally made because of a competition between John Raskob (GME) and Walter Chrysler (Chrysler Company). Chrysler had already started building the Chrysler building (Which was going to be 1,046 feet tall) when Raskob decided that he was going to build a a skyscraper much larger than his competitor's. When the Empire State building was finished it was 1,250 feet tall (Not including the 204 foot lighting rod). The construction employed around 3,400 people a day.