French and Indian War-Cause: English colonist want to expand west into French and Indian territory. (LAND, IT WAS BECAUSE OF LAND)
-Explanation: French and Indians resist English expansion westwards, most indians side with the French.
-Victor/effect: British win, forcing the French completely out of New England (Treaty of Paris, 1763)
-Significance: The Proclamation of 1763 was established. England goes into massive war debt.
Proclamation of 1763-Explanation: Reserved land west of the Appalachian mountains for indians, and ended Indian Conflict.
-Effects on Colonies: Colonist could not settle west of the Appalachian mountain
Sugar Act-Person Responsible: British Parliament
-Explanation: A tax on molasses and Sugar that punished people for smuggling, it was passed due to England being in severe dept from the French and Indian war
-Significance: Sent smugglers to British courts to be tried instead of colonial court.
-Colonial Response: Colonist were displeased, and angered by the act.
Quartering Act-Explanation: British law passed which required colonist to food, drink, and living space to British soldiers.
Stamp Act-Person Responsible: British Parliament
-Explanation: An official government stamp required on all documents (First direct tax on the colonies)
-Colonial Responses: Angered colonist, established Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams; This group protested and harassed British Stamp policies, Stamp Act Resolves passed by House of Burgesses in response to the Stamp Act.
Stamp Act Congress-Who was involved: Colonial Delegates
-Where did they meet: New York City
-Purpose of the meeting: Discuss issues that related to the Stamp Act
-Result of the meeting: Decided that Parliament couldn't tax the colonies because the colonies didn't have Representatives in Parliament.
Declaratory ActExplanation: Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, and declared they had the right to rule over and tax the colonies regardless on how they felt.
Townshends Act-Person Responsible: Charles Townshend
-Explanation: The taxation of goods from England. (lead, paper, glass, and tea); "Writs of assistance was established" - Customs officers could search any home for smuggled goods
-How Tax money will be used: Profit for Britain
-Colonial Response: Colonist were extremely displeased and began to boycott British goods. Representatives of the colonies stated that there could be "No taxation without Representation"
-Angered colonist began to harass officers of the British Army outside of the Custom House in Massachusetts.
-During the event, the angry mob physically harassed the troops even after several warnings from them starting they would fire.
-British Captain Thomas Preston ordered his men not to fire, but a misunderstanding led to the troops firing into the crowd killing five men and wounding several others.
Boston Tea Party-Who was responsible: Colonist led by Samuel Adams
-What led to the event: Taxation on British tea
=Colonist led by Samuel Adams dressed up as Mohawk Indians, boarded a British trading ship and dump barrels of tea into the Harbor
=An estimated amount of 92,000 (46 tons)pounds of tea was dumped into the harbor, the price estimated $1 million in today's money.
-British response: Passing of the Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts-Who was mainly affected: Boston, Massachusetts
-Explanation: Law passed tightening the control over the colonies, stopped trade from Boston and stated they had to pay for damages.
-Colonial Response: First Continental congress was established
Quebec Act-Explanation: Expanded Quebec boundaries and grant religious freedom to Catholic Canadians.
-Colonial Response: Helped the colonist spur closer to independence.
First Continental Congress-Who was involved: Delegates from each colony (Except Georgia), Peyton Randolph (First president of the Congress), George Washington, Patrick Henry, and John Adams.
-Where did they meet: Philadelphia
-Purpose of the meeting: Respond to the actions of the Intolerable Acts.
-Result of the meeting: Defend the colonies right to run their own government, no military action unless attacked, agreed to meet again in the Spring.
Battle of Lexington and Concord-Explanation: A British General hears of a large stockpile of guns and ammunition hidden in Concord. Not only were they after weaponry, two important people by the names of John Hancock and Samuel Adams were on the list of people to take. The sons of liberty war the colonist and minutemen prepare themselves. Both sides faced casualties. Estimated 49 for the colonist and 73 for the British along with 174 wounded.
-Significance: Considered the first battle of the Revolutionary War
Battle of Bunker Hill-Where it occurred: Boston Massachusetts
-Explanation: British Storm the hill three times, but were forced to retreat
-Results: The british won
-Colonial Response: Gave them confidence that they could win the war after successfully fending off the two of three times.
Second Continental Congress-Who was involved: John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, George Washington, and colonial delegates.
-Held at: Like the First Continental Congress, Philadelphia.
-Purpose: To decide how to react to the events at Lexington and Concord.
-Result: Wrote "Declaration of the causes and necessities of taking up arms." Sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III which expressed hope for reconciliation between the colonies and Britain.
"Common Sense"-Author: Thomas Paine
-Argument: He argued against King George III about how the colonies needed to be separated from England, and how the creation of a Democratic government was strongly needed
-Significance: Helped persuade undecided colonist to support independence.
Declaration of Independence-Who wrote it: Thomas Jefferson
-Date Signed: July 2 (Approved on July 4th)
-Significance: Formally announced the break with England
-Main ideas: "Inalienable rights" - Life, Liberty, and pursuit of happiness ; England's unfair laws and taxation ; England had violated the Social Contract
-Colonial Responses: Increased motivation for creating independence