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Empire to Independence

  • Zenger Trial

    John Zenger was charged with libel, not guilty with free speech on terms.
  • Albany Congress

    The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives from seven of the thirteen British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island).
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    Seven Years War

    The seven years war was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines
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    Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac's Rebellion was a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War.
  • Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven years War between Great Britain on one side and the French and its allies on the other.
  • Sugar Act

    The Sugar Act was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764 that taxed sugar in the colonies.
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act was a direct tax imposed by the British Parliament specifically on the colonies of British America reducing colony paper usage.
  • Declaratory Act and repeal of stamp Act

    the Declaratory Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765. Also, it repealed the 1765 stamp act.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others.
  • Tea Act

    The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain. Its principal overt objective was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company.
  • Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, a city in the British colony of Massachusetts, against the tax policy of the British government and the East India Company that controlled all the tea imported into the colonies.
  • Intolerable Acts

    The Coercive Acts or the Intolerable Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies in North America. Four of the acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773; the British Parliament hoped these punitive measures would, by making an example of Massachusetts, reverse the trend of colonial resistance to parliamentary authority that had begun with the 1765 Stamp Act. A fifth act, the Quebec Act
  • First Continental Congress

    The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve British North American colonies that met on September 5, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord

    The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
  • Guns of Ft. Tichonderoga

    Cannons captured from fort Tichonderoga at this time were transported to Boston where their deployment forced the British to abandon the city in March 1776.
  • Second Continental Congress

    The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress in July 1775 in an attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict.
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Common Sense presented the American colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule at a time when the question of seeking independence was still undecided. Paine wrote and reasoned in a style that common people understood. Forgoing the philosophical and Latin references used by Enlightenment era writers, he structured Common Sense as if it were a sermon, and relied on Biblical references to make his case to the people.
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights

    Virginia Declaration of RightsThe Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to rebel against "inadequate" government.
  • Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
  • Battle of Long Island

    The Battle of Long Island was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle in which an army of the United States engaged, having declared itself a nation only the month before.
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

    Virginia Statute for Religious FreedomThe Statute for Religious Freedom supported the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, and freedom of conscience.
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    Valley Forge Btlle

    Valley Forge in Pennsylvania was the site of the military camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 during the American Revolutionary War.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war.
  • Ratification of Articles of Confederation

    At the same time the necessity for a closer union was generally felt by the Americans, and the imperfect plan for a national government known as the Articles of Confederation, already described, was ratified by the requisite number of States, on the 1st of March, 1781.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    the Battle of Yorktown was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other.
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    Land Ordinance of 1785The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress on May 20, 1785. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the United States. Therefore, the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired at the 1783 (Treaty of Paris) after the end of the Revolutionary War.
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    Northwest OrdinanceThe primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
  • George Washington Inauguration

    George Washington Inauguration
    First inauguration of George WashingtonThe inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of George Washington as President. John Adams had already taken office as Vice President since April 21.