The House of Burgesses passed its first comprehensive slave code. Earlier laws had already guaranteed that the children of enslaved women would be born enslaved, conversion to Christianity would not lead to freedom, and enslavers could not free their enslaved laborers unless they transported them out of the colony.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival reforms religion in America, encourages individualism, and questions authority.
The largest slave insurrection in British North America. A violent reminder that slaves were willing to fight for freedom.
Slavery was legal in every North American colony
By 1750, slavery was legal in every North American colony, but local economic imperatives, demographic trends, and cultural practices all contributed to distinct colonial variants of slavery.
Widespread Legality of Slavery
Slavery was legal throughout the region.
Seven Year's War
British victory brought about the fall of French Canada, the expansion of the British Empire which arose the need for increased taxation of colonies, and pushed the thirteen colonies politically closer.
Quakers Turn Against Slavery
Quakers in Pennsylvania disowned members who engaged in the slave trade, the first colonial action against slavery.
King George III took the crown
As King George III became the ruler of Britain, he represented an authoritarian vision of the British empire in which colonies would be subordinate to Britain.
The Seven Years’ War ended
ended with the peace treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg in 1763. The British received much of Canada and North America from the French, while the Prussians retained the important province of Silesia.
Violent conflict with Native Americans alters the British government's policy towards Indians.
Created the proclamation line marking the Appalachian Mountains as the boundary between the British colonies and land held controlled by Native Americans.
The act cut the duty in half but enforced it by having smugglers tried by vice-admiralty courts rather than juries.
The act restricted the use of paper money and, therefore, hampered intercolonial trade.
Brought colonial leaders together in an unprecedented show of cooperation against taxes imposed by Parliament, and popular boycotts of British goods created a common narrative of sacrifice, resistance, and shared political identity.
Sons of Liberty
Formed as a reaction to the Stamp Act in order to direct and organize resistance among colonists.
Although Britain repealed the Stamp Act, it asserted that it reserved Parliament's right to impose laws.
The act creates new customs duties and was met with an increasingly coordinated resistance
Generates sympathy for Boston and anger with Britain
The act was met with an open rebellion that dumped all of the tea unto the sea and thus prompted a coercive response from Britain.
The acts attempted to increase British control over the colonies through further restrictions.
First Continental Congress
Sought to unite twelve states in a continental resistance of nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
American Revolutionary War Begins
War breaks out in Lexington and Concord
Declaration of Independence
Continental Congress approves the public Declaration of Independence.
Battle of Saratoga
American victory convinces the French to join the American Revolution against the British.
Siege of Yorktown
American forces led by George Washington joined by French troops siege the army of General Cornwallis. It was the concluding victory of the war that marked the definitive independence of the United States.
Articles of Confederation
Continental Congress ratifies the Articles of Confederation, which creates a weak federal government.
George Washington is America's first President
Commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (1775-83) and served two terms as the first U.S. president, from 1789 to 1797.
Bank of the United States
Congress approved a twenty-year charter for the Bank of the United States, as proposed by Alexander Hamilton.
The rebellion proves the power of the federal government to quell it and demonstrates that poor westerners viewed the government as their enemy.
The First Amendment proclaims no official national religion and guarantees religious liberty.
Bill of Rights
After the debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists for the ratifying of the constitution, the Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution.
Creation of the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin allows southern plantations to dramatically expand cotton production.
Johns Adam inaugurated as the second president
When Adams became President, the war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas and intense partisanship among contending factions within the Nation.