EMERGENCE OF TECHNICAL NETWORKS -- Mapping World Communication

  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

  • Commision of weights and measures established for normalization

  • First French Telegraph line

  • French Interior Ministry create official Bureau of Statistics

  • US inaugurates telegraph system

  • The "Rocket", steam locomotive prototype appears

  • Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened, the first inter-city railway in the world

    Construction of major railways connecting larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution.
  • First systems of Electric Telegraphy perfected by two Englishmen and an American

  • First Steam Ship crosses the Atlantic

    From UK to New York
  • US - Congress adopts Postage Stamp

  • Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations (1st World's Fair)

    Took place at the Crystal Palace in London.
  • France - Public use of the telgraph system is finally allowed

  • Trans-Atlantic cable becomes operational

    not until 1866 was it really operational
  • Period: to

    Europe - merger of post and telegraph by national govt's

  • US - Commercial exploitation of telegraph post-Civil War

    with the founding of Western Union company
  • International Telegraph Union founded (in Paris)

    The Union represented the first international institution in the modern era.
  • Period: to

    Militaries create corps of railway engineers

    Armies in US, France, Germany, and Great Britain all create staffs to oversee railway management and construction. (US Civil War is 1861-1865)
  • Japan - 1st telegraphic line

  • Opening of the Suez Canal

    International extension of cable conincided with rivalry that intensified between French and British empires, as a result the canal.
  • International Telegraph Conference in Rome to regulate global netwrok

    The conference brough together only 22 countries. It was mostly European countries; the U.S. did not attend.
  • Japan - 1st Railroad

  • US - Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

  • US - Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

  • US has 123,00 telephones. Great Britain has 1,100.

    Great Britain first chose to let private sector carry out extension of telephone lines. Not until 1912 did govt take over.
  • Intl' Railway Conference (for standardization in Europe)

    1829 - First locomotive prototype. By 1882 already 430,000+ km of rail network. Standardization cam later to rail (than telegraph) because it involved moving peopleand goods, and thus ran into politics.
  • US - AT&T is founded (telephone company)

    For almost 80 years AT&T has a near monoploy over telecommunications in the US, until deregulation in the 1980's
  • 1st telephone line b/w Chicago and New York eestablished

    Coincided with opening of Chicago's World's Fair - Columbian Exposition
  • 1st wireless trans-Atlantic telegraph transmission

    Done with the discovery of electro-magnetic waves by an Italian scientist, with the support of naval defense contractors and newspaper groups.
  • Opening of the Panama Canal

  • 1st telephone cable under the Atlantic

    Note: this was only one year before the satellite race broke out.