Elements of the Periodic Table

Timeline created by gabyarman324
  • 500


    Pre history B/C Carbon as graphite is a good lubricant. Carbon is a key component of steel. The analysis of iron (ferrous) metals in industry is important and ideally achieved in the field with robust equipment. Charge coupled device (CCD) technology drives portable emission spectrometers to measure the whole spectrum necessary for the analysis of all common metals including iron and important compone
  • Oct 18, 700


    Pre-History B/C Sulphur is a component of black gunpowder (a mixture of potassium nitrate, KNO3, carbon, and sulhur). It is used in the vulcanisation of natural rubber, as a fungicide, and as a fumigant.
    Sulphur compounds are used in the bleaching of dried fruits and for paper products.
  • Oct 18, 1000


    •the metal and the dioxide are used in storage batteries
    •cable covering, plumbing, ammunition
    •manufacture of PbEt4 - an antiknock compound in petrol. Environmental concern with lead poisoning, (and cheaper unleaded petrol prices) is slowly resulting in less use of lead in petrol
    •the metal is very effective as a sound absorber
    •a radiation shield around X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors
  • Oct 18, 1250


    •hardening and improving the sphericity of shot
    •doping agent in solid-state devices such as transistors
    •the arsenide is used as a laser material to convert electricity directly into coherent light
  • antimony

    •used in semiconductor technology for making infrared detectors, diodes, and Hall-effect devices
    •used in alloys with percentages ranging from 1 to 20 - greatly increases the hardness and mechanical strength of lead
    •batteries, antifriction alloys, type metal, small arms and tracer bullets, cable sheathing, and minor products use about half the metal produced
    •oxides, sulphides, sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride are used in manufacturing flame-proofing compounds, paints, ceramic enamel
  • Phosphorus

    •used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics, incendiary shells, smoke bombs, tracer bullets, etc.
    •phosphates are used in the production of special glasses, such as those used for sodium lamps
    •bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used to produce fine chinaware and to produce monocalcium phosphate used in baking powder
    •important in the production of steels, phosphor bronze, and many other products
    •Na3PO4 is important as a cleaning agent, as a water softener, and for preven
  • platinium

    •wire and vessels for laboratory use
    •thermocouple elements
    •electrical contacts
    •corrosion-resistant apparatus
    •in dentistry
    •platinum-cobalt alloys have magnetic properties
    •coating missile nose cones, jet engine fuel nozzles
  • Zinc

    Zinc metal is used for dry batteries, roof cladding, and to protect iron structures from corrosion by attaching zinc as sacrifical anodes. Zinc metal is also used in lightweight coins (for instance, USA and Canadian one cent coins are zinc coated with bronze plate) The oxide (ZnO) is used in the manufacture of paints, rubber products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, floor coverings, plastics, printing inks, soap, textiles, electrical equipment, and other products. It is also used in ointments.
  • nickel

    •chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms such as stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys
    •tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water
    •used extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armour plate and burglar-proof vaults
    •nickel added to glass gives a green colour
    •nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals
    •finely divided nickel is a catalyst for hydro
  • Nitrogen

    •used in ammonia, NH3, production (Haber process). This is the greatest use of nitrogen. Ammonia is used for fertilizer production and to produce nitric acid (Ostwald process)
    •used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during production of such components as transistors, diodes, etc.
    •used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products
    •used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods
    •liquid nitr
  • chlorine

    •production of safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallest water supplies are now usually chlorinated
    •extensively used in the production of paper products, dye stuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products
    •most chlorine is used in the manufacture of chlorinated cleaning compounds, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing
    •manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tet
  • Oxygen

    •oxy-acetylene welding
    •frequently used to aid respiration of patients in hospitals
    •used in making methanol and ethene oxide
    •rocket fuel oxidant
    •steel manufacture
    •ozone (O3) in the atmosphere is protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays
  • Aluminium

    •cans and foils
    •kitchen utensils
    •outside building decoration
    •industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed
    •although its electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper per area of cross section, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its lightness and price
    •alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets
    •aluminium, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible ligh
  • fluorine

    •fluorine and its compounds are used in producing isotopically fractionated uranium (from UF6)
    •commercial fluorochemicals, including many well known high-temperature plastics
    •hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc.
    •fluorochloro hydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and refrigeration
    •in small amounts, fluorides in water sources prevent tooth decay. A constituent of toothpaste for the same reason. Soluble fluoride in drinking water (2 pp
  • Argon

    •used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 3 mm, photo tubes, glow tubes, etc.
    •used as an inert gas shield for arc welding and cutting
    •blanket for the production of titanium and other reactive elements
    •protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals ,lasers, light bulbs electric light bulbs and fluorescent tubes, photo tubes, glow tubes, welding, cutting, as a protective gas for other substances
  • helium

    •filling balloons (blimps) as it is a much safer gas than hydrogen
    •widely used as an inert gas shield for arc welding in countries where helium is cheaper than argon
    •protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, and in titanium and zirconium production
    •cooling medium for nuclear reactors
    •a mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure
    •cryogenic applications
    •as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels
    •a protective
  • Krypton

    •used with argon as a low-pressure filling gas for fluorescent lights
    •used in some photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography, lamps, UV-laser spectral line used for international measurement of a metre
  • Neon

    •used in making neon advertising signs, which accounts for its largest use
    •used to make high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, and TV tubes
    •neon and helium are used in making gas lasers
    •liquid neon is an economical cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium and more than three times that of liquid hydrogen. It is compact, inert, and less expensive than helium when it meets refrigeration requirements
  • Polonium

    •mixed or alloyed with beryllium to provide a source of neutrons
    •used for eliminating static charges in textile mills (β-sources are more common and less dangerous)
    •used on brushes for removing dust from photographic films
    •thermoelectric power in space satellites
    •source of neutrons
  • radium

    •self-luminous paints
    •neutron sources
    •medical uses for the treatment of conditions such as cancer (now being replaced by 60Co sources)
  • Actinium

    •thermoelectric power
    •source of neutrons
  • Radon

    •filling balloons (blimps) as it is a much safer gas than hydrogen
    •widely used as an inert gas shield for arc welding in countries where helium is cheaper than argon
    •protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, and in titanium and zirconium production
    •cooling medium for nuclear reactors
    •a mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure
    •cryogenic applications
    •as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels
    •a protective
  • Francium

    Francium has no uses
  • Plutonium

    •nuclear weapons
    •source of nuclear power
  • Americium

    •ionization source for smoke detectors
    •Am-241 as a portable source of γ rays
  • Dubnium

    Dubnium is a highly radioactive metal that is solely used for research.
  • ununtrium

    Element 113 has no uses as only a very few atoms of this element have been identified.
  • Tin

    •used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion or other chemical action (tin cans are made from tin coated steel)
    •alloying agent, important alloys incldue soft solder, type metal, fusible metal, pewter, bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, White metal, die casting alloy, and phosphor bronze
    •the chloride (SnCl2.H2O) is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing
    •tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lig
  • Gold

    coins , jewelry and bullion
    3000 b.C.
  • Silver

    •Sterling silver is used for jewellery, silverware, etc. where appearance is paramount. This alloy contains 92.5% silver, the remainder is copper or some other metal
    •photography (AgBr)
    •solder and brazing alloys
    •electrical contacts
    •high capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries
    •silver paints are used for making printed circuits
    •used in mirror production and may be deposited on glass or metals by chemical deposition, electrodeposition, or by evaporation. When freshly d
  • Iron

    •pig iron is an alloy containing about 3% carbon with varying amounts of S, Si, Mn, and P. It is hard, brittle, fairly fusible, and is used to produce other alloys, including steel
    •wrought iron contains a few tenths of a percent of carbon, is tough, malleable, less fusible, and has usually a "fibrous" structure
    •carbon steel is an alloy of iron with carbon, with small amounts of Mn, S, P, and Si
    •alloy steels are carbon steels with other additives such as nickel, chromium, vanadium, etc
  • Copper or Cruprum

    Copper or Cruprum
    •wire B/C
    •coinage metal
    •copper compounds such as Fehling's solution are widely used in analytical chemistry in tests for sugar
    •the electrical industry is one of the largest users of copper
    •copper sulphate is used as an agricultural poison, and water purifier