DCUSH 1301

Timeline created by s716873
In History
  • -683 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering Land Bridge was believed to have connected Russia to Alaska. After the Ice Age, the ice around it melted and exposed this piece of land that was around 1000 miles long. There were 3 major waves. The first wave happened about 27,000 years ago. The second wave consisted of the ancestors of today's southwest natives and happened about 8,000 years ago. The third major wave consisted of the ancestors of the Arctic natives. It is believed this is how people first traveled globally.
  • 476

    Dark Ages

    Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages of Europe began after the fall of Rome. The economy was at an all-time low, there was little to no learning, and it brought around the concept of feudalism. Feudalism was when the vassals were given land in exchange for military service and peasants were given military protection and shelter if they gave a portion of their crops and labor to the vassals. The Catholic church was in charge and took over of the culture and little education that there was. The Dark Ages ended in 800.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were huge religious massacres carried out by Catholic Europeans mostly against Muslims. They would fight over land that they both considered holy. There were groups of knights who would protect the land and protect the people. Most of the crusades were usually unsuccessful. The knights were usually awarded indulgences (the forgiveness of sins in exchange for money).The Crusades, however, did benefit in the form of knowledge about military and trade. They ended in the year 1291.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement from the late 14th to the 18th century. It was set in a post Black-Death era. It was a revival of culture, art, and more. It modernized names such as Michaelangelo and DaVinci.The Renaissance era brought an invention that would forever change the world. The printing press was invented by Johan Gutenberg in 1440. This era also peaked the interest in science. This allowed for medicine to be worked on and advanced into the modern medicine we know today.
  • 1347

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, originated in China about 2000 years ago. It was believed that when trading with China, a rat's flea infected with the Bubonic Plague made it onto the ship. Everyone on the ship got infected and then they brought in into Europe. About 40-50% of Europe's people died from this disease. Since medicine wasn't very advanced, the disease couldn't be cured. It also allowed for people to demand better wages since there were only a few workers left.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was the exchanging of many things such as natural resources and disease between these 2 lands. When Columbus came across the New World, it opened the doors for people to come over from Europe and settle there. Once people were there, they exchanged things such as ideas, disease, and animals. The Native Americans that were already living there got struck with the Europeans' diseases. The colonists sent the crops that they grew and any natural resources they had to Europe.
  • 1539

    Seven Cities of Cibola

    Seven Cities of Cibola
    The Seven Cities of Cibola was an urban legend that was fueled by a priest. Friar Marcos de Niza claimed that he saw the mysterious cities that were the treasures of the Native Americans. Even though he only "saw them from afar", this was enough to start a search. The Spanish were quick to believe this myth because they had seen the riches that came with conquering the Inca and Mayans. When the expedition returned, most of them were in debt and dissapointed they never found the promised riches.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade lasted from the 1600's to the 1800's. It was a trading relationship between Africa, American colonies, and Europe. Africa would send their people to the colonies who would use them for slaves. The colonies would then send sugar, tobacco, cotton, and more made from the slaves to Europe. Europe would then process and make goods from the raw resources the colonies would send over their way. From there, they would trade the finished product in Africa, restarting the process.
  • Virginia

    When Europeans started colonizing America, Queen Elizabeth I named the whole section Walter Raleigh explored in 1584 "Virginia". The first successful European colony, Jamestown, in the America was located in Virginia. Tobacco was grown in Virginia and was their most successful crop. Thanks to the climate, it was also one of the easiest things to grow. Virginia had the most presidents born here. The surrenders that ended the Civil War (Appomattox) and American Revolution (Yorktown) occured here.
  • Plymouth

    Plymouth was the first colony of the New England region. The colonists, known as Pilgrims, started sailing here because they believed England was too corrupt. They came over on the Mayflower in Sept.1620. Even though more than half of the original settlers died after the harsh winter, the rest were able to form pacts with the Native Americans that would help them survive food shortages. The Mayflower Compact was formed from the Pilgrims and it was one of the first official documents of America.
  • Maryland

    Maryland was founded by Catholic refugees such as Lord Baltimore and George Calvert. It was named after King Charles I's wife, Queen Henrietta Maria. it was originally called the Province of Maryland, but later shortened to Maryland. It was the 7th original colony. The northern boundary (Mason-Dixon line) was a result of several legal battles between Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. Even though the colony originated as a safe place for Catholics, Protestants would eventually also settle here.
  • Roger Williams

    Roger Williams
    Roger Williams was born in 1603. His views on religious freedom and tolerance alienated him from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, eventually getting him kicked out by the Puritans. He founded Rhode Island and the first Baptist church as a way for people such as Jews to come worship however they wanted without worrying about getting persecuted. However, he didn't really gain recognition until the creation of the Constitution, which was influenced by his belief in separation of the church and state.
  • Anne Hutchinson

    Anne Hutchinson
    Hutchinson was born in 1591. She was a midwife who followed John Cotton from England to Massachusetts Bay Colony, which was populated with Puritans who had a very strict religion. Hutchinson would hole meetings in her home, giving her own interpretation of the Bible. However, the Puritans didn't like this. When she challenged Cotton and John Wheelwright as real Christian ministers, she was put to trial by the General Court of Massachusetts. As her punishment, her and her family were kicked out.
  • William Penn

    William Penn
    William Penn was born in 1644. He wanted to create a safe haven for Quakers after being persecuted for his faith in England. King Charles II owed Penn's father a humongous debt, so he gave his son a huge piece of land near New Jersey. With both of these circumstances working in Penn's favor, he founded Pennsylvania. He also wanted this colony as a way to make a profit for him and his family. However, this didn't work and he was eventually imprisoned for debt. When he died, he had no money.
  • Issac Newton

    Issac Newton
    Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician who helped shaped physics as known today. His most popular work was Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, published in 1687, which has been considered one of the most influential books of physics. He is credited as a main person who developed essential calculus theories. Newton invented the first reflecting telescope. He has 3 theories still widely popular today. In 1705, the Queen of England knighted him making him Sir Isaac Newton.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke was born in 1632. He was a huge contributor to the foundation of the Enlightenment movement. He was also a philosopher and political theorist who was trained in medicine. Locke was a tremendous advocate of the Scientific Revolution. His most popular piece, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, is his analysis of the human mind and it's ability to develop knowledge. During the American Revolution, people would turn towards his views on limited government and use it to guide them.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials occurred in Massachusetts. The daughter and niece of a pastor started throwing violent fits, which a local doctor diagnosed as bewitchment. As time went by, more girls started throwing similar fits. They accused a local beggar and their slave(Tituba) of bewitching them. Tituba admitted to these crimes hoping she would get a lenient punishment. If convicted, the accused would be hung. Cotton Mather eventually got these trials to stop, after about 20 people were executed.
  • Ohio Company of Virginia

    Ohio Company of Virginia
    The Ohio Company of Virginia was founded by a group of Virginia planters who wanted to invest in land west of the Appalachian Mountains. If they didn't succeed in selling the land and making a profit, their second option was to get involved in the fur trade. They were granted about 200,000 acres of land as long as they settled 100 families. However, when the French became aware of their interest in their land, the French settled forts and began the tension that led to the French and Indian War.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    This war started with the Ohio Company Of Virginia taking land near the Appalachian Mountains so they could settle west. However, they were cutting into the territory of the French, who would kick them out and then settle after building Fort Duaquesne. George Washington wasn't sent with enough men, so he was forced to surrender. The British decided to take Quebec, which fell in 1759, and Montreal with their strong navy to hurt the French,leading to the Treaty of Paris of 1763 that ends this war.
  • Treaty of Paris of 1763

    Treaty of Paris of 1763
    The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War, along with French rule in North America. Britain will now take control of Canada, while the French were able to stay in Quebec. They were also only left with Haiti and small Canadian islands. Since the French lost most of their territories, they were no longer considered a threat to Britain. Spain also gained land as a result of this treaty, such as French Louisiana. This treaty put colonists on the road to craving independence.
  • Revenue/Sugar Act

    Revenue/Sugar Act
    This tax was enforced by the British on the colonies. It was enforced because of the French and Indian War, which greatly indebted Great Britain. The 1733 Sugar and Molasses Act was also expiring so they needed to renew it. They became aware of the smuggling of sugar/molasses from the Dutch and French and wanted the profit they were getting to come back to them. Even though the British reduced the tax, the colonists still weren't happy with being taxed on something they used almost every day.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The colonists decided they had enough of all the taxes being imposed on them. A group of British soldiers were sent to try calm down this angry mob but they couldn't succeed. In fact, they only made the situation worst. The colonists started harassing the soldiers which caused the soldiers to fire into the crowd. They killed 5 people and injured 3 more. However, Paul Revere publicized it as a massacre and exaggerated the details so he could get more people to support the cause for Independence.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    This event was an act of defiance from the American colonies who were angry about all the taxes being put on them. Many of the colonies had rejected the tea imports from Great Britain, but Boston still accepted them. However, Samuel Adams and other Sons of Liberty decided they wanted to get rid of this. They didn't want to get caught so they dressed up as Indians so nobody would recognize them. They threw over 300 chests of tea overboard. This caused the creation of the Coercive Acts of 1774.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers. He invented many things in his lifetime. However, his most famous accomplishments are his contributions towards the ending of the American Revolution and helping make the most important documents in American history. He negotiated the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War (Treaty of Paris of 1783), helped create the draft of the Declaration of Independence, and as a representative the convention that created the United States Constitution.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense was a pamphlet, originally published anonymously, written by Thomas Paine and is considered one the most influential pamphlets. He wanted to show colonists different arguments on why America was better off as an independent country. In this pamphlet, he attacked the British monarchy and advocated for a democratic representative government. Since this pamphlet was very cheap and accessible, it became popular. This causes for the colonists' views on the British monarchy to change.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a result of the American Revolution. It was the first official document unifying all the colonies and declaring them free from British rule. It listed the grievances against Britain such as not having a trial by jury, paying taxes they didn't agree on, and being cut off from trading with other countries. Even though Thomas Jefferson is known for writing it, there were also a group of 5 men who helped. It was completed July 2nd but not signed until the 4th.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the American Revolution and was an American victory.The French allied with American and would support them by giving them money and soldiers. The battle was separated into two parts. The first battle was won by the British. However, they got too cocky and lost the second part. After being surrounded, the British army, led by General John Burgoyne, surrendered. Burgoyne also made the mistake of separating his army, making it easier for them to lose.
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    Massachusetts Constitution
    The Massachusetts Constitution is the oldest functioning constitution in American history and heavily influenced the United States Constitution. It was drafted by John Adams in 1779. It was ratified on June 15, 1780 and officially became effective on October 25, 1780. There were four parts to this document; a preamble, declaration of rights, how the framework of the government would work, and articles of amendments. It also introduced the concept that all men are born equal and certain rights.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    This document was the first official constitution of the United States after they gained their independence. Since this was their first one, it wasn't very strong and couldn't really do much to help the U.S. Soldiers were never granted the pensions they were promised. There was no central govt. or authority to put down rebellions. They also couldn't enforce or raise taxes. It did however allow them to make treaties with other countries. John Dickinson provided the draft for this document.
  • Treaty of Paris of 1783

    Treaty of Paris of 1783
    This treaty came after the battle of Yorktown and was the ending to the American Revolution. It forced other countries (mainly Britain) to recognize the United States as an independent nation. It established the northern border with Canada and gave the U.S. access to the Mississippi River/the frontier land associated with it. This treaty was also supposed to restore loyalist properties but never did. It was signed by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, John Jay, and Richard Oswald.
  • Mississippi River

    Mississippi River
    This river is the 2nd longest in the United States It begins in Missouri and ends in the Gulf of Mexico. Hernando de Soto was the first European recorded to have spotted the Mississippi River. After the Seven Years war, this river became the border between Spanish and French empires. The French had always had an interest in this river and would try many times to settle in this area. However, they would always fail. No matter how many times they settled here, the land would get taken away.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    During the American Revolution, farmers had to take out loans to support their farm. However, they didn't have enough money to pay them back so their properties were getting seized. Daniel Shay led a group of veterans to protest for the return of their land. Since the Articles of Confederation didn't have an army/someway to deal with these situations, George Washington took the situation into his own hands and put down the rebellion. This showed how weak the Articles of Confederation were.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia. After Shay's Rebellion revealed just how weak the Articles of Confederation were, delegates decided to gather and try to make this document stronger. They knew they didn't have the power to control commerce, tax, no central force to defend and enforce. They also wanted to figure out how to pay their debt from the Revolutionary War. As the Constitution was being written, the executive branch was given more power than was originally thought.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    The Great Debate was a series of debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. They couldn't agree on components of the Constitution. The Federalists were supporters of keeping the Constitution how it was. They didn't want the Bill of Rights and wanted a powerful central government. However, Anti-Federalists believed that the states should have more power and believed the Bill of Rights was necessary. The Federalists will end up winning and the Constitution becomes the law of the land.
  • Steamboats

    When James Watt patented an improved version of the steam engine, it introduced the beginning of the industrial revolution. With the trial of a steamboat made by John Fitch, it began a new era. Fitch and James Rumsey would fight over the patent of the steamboat because they had similar designs. Eventually, Fitch would win and be granted the patent. Different people such as Henry Miller Shreve and Robert Fulton created different versions of the successful invention that would change the world.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was a policy that explained how new states could be admitted and solved Thomas Jefferson's problem on how to divide land won in wars. It stated that about three to five states could be created from the Northwest Territory. Once the state had 5,000 people, they could begin the process of being accepted. They weren't allowed to have slavery. Once the population reached 60,000 they were allowed to make a draft of their own Constitution and petition to be considered a state.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The election of 1788 was the first presidential election in American history. When the two men would run, whoever came in first place would become the president while second place would become the vice president. In this case, George Washington came in first and his vice president became John Adams. Washington was greatly admired for his role in the American Revolution and many people idolized him, even seeing him as a god-like figure. He was inaugurated in New York City on April 30, 1788.
  • Bill Of Rights

    Bill Of Rights
    The Bill of Rights are the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution. They were supported by the Anti-Federalists. These amendments were introduced by James Madison who was strongly influenced by Virginia Declaration of Rights.They were made to place limits on the central government. When Madison went through the Constitution and started making changes, several Representatives argued that Congress had no power to change the wording of the document. Therefore, his changes became amendments.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    The First Bank of the United States was the creation of Alexander Hamilton. He believed that it would stabilize the country's economy. However it would have private investors. Many people disagreed with this and it would turn into a constitutional issue. Since George Washington was friend with Hamilton, the bank would be chartered. It was created in Philadelphia and had branches in eight different cities. In 1811, critics of the bank were able to prevent renewal of the bank and it was shut down.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was the Constitution's first test to see how strong it was. In Kentucky and Pennsylvania, farmers would sell whiskey on the side and make a large profit. However, Hamilton decided the farmers should start getting taxed on these sales. The smaller producers would get taxed a higher price which they didn't think was fair. The farmers revolted and threatened to attack Pittsburgh. George Washington was able to gather an army to
    control the situation and stop the farmers.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was patented by Eli Whitney in 1794. Before the invention of this machine, slavery was slowly starting to decline. However, this made the process of separating cotton and seeds easier and faster. More people would be needed to pick the cotton since more would be able to be produced. Even though this machine was successful, it didn't make Whitney much money. Due to patent-infringement issues, he missed out on money. His invention also gave southerners a reason to justify slavery.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    This election saw the competition between two different political parties. Since Washington didn't seek out a 3rd term, the results were unknown before the actual electing started. This was the first election where two people from different political parties were elected into office. The Federalists and Republicans would attack and blame each other for their problems. John Adams, a Federalist, went against Thomas Jefferson, Republican, and Adams won. This meant Jefferson was the vice president.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    When France went to war with Great Britain, America stayed neutral. They signed Jay's Treaty with Britain which caused problems. The French believed it interfered with previous treaties they already had. They got upset and seized American ships. John Adams would then send 3 diplomats to France, trying to resolve their issues. The prime minister would send 3 agents to inform them that they would have to pay him a huge loan while paying each agent, along with other conditions Madison disagreed on.
  • Marbury V. Madison

    Marbury V. Madison
    Marybury v. Madison is considered the most important Supreme Court case. When John Adams' term was about to end, he wanted to make Jefferson's life harder and tried to stack the courts with Federalists. However, his plan didn't go all the way through and Madison (Jefferson's secretary of state) withheld the nominations for the judges. Marbury, one of the nominees, was angry and sued. This case set up judicial review and it showed that the SC didn't have the power to go again the Constitution.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    In 1801, Spain ceded Louisiana back to France. The U.S. feared that Napolean Bonaparte would close the New Orleans port and want to take the land near the Mississippi River. Since the French were having economic problems, Jefferson negotiated with Bonaparte. He would buy the territory for less than 3 cents an acre, which would help the French with money and give the U.S. access to the Mississippi River. This purchase became known as the Louisiana Purchase and doubled the size of the nation.
  • Sacagawea

    Sacagawea was with Lewis/Clark along with their crew in the expedition of the west. Her knowledge in the land along with her translation skills helped them in this difficult journey. She was able to help them and travel with them even while taking care of her 2 month old son. The crew grew even more respect for her when she gathered necessary supplies that would've disappeared when their boat got hit. She was a part of the Shoshone tribe growing up and lived in modern Idaho by the Rocky Mts.
  • Hamilton Vs. Burr

    Hamilton Vs. Burr
    Hamilton and Burr had a long feud. When Burr ran with Jefferson for president, they tied. Hamilton convinced the Representatives to choose Jefferson. He would constantly campaign against Burr and make him lose anything he ran for. Burr would send him letters asking him to apologize, but Hamilton refused, causing them to duel. Hamilton shot first, but didn't aim at Burr because it was the right thing to do. However, Burr took his chance and shot him in the abdomen, killing him a day later.
  • Railroads

    Railroads would become a cheaper and faster way to travel, fueling the Industrial Revolution even further. Most of the supplies used for the locomotives and train tracks would be imported from Britain before the Civil War. The first railroad chartered in the United States was the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad when Baltimore realized railroads could make them more competitive with New York/Erie Canal to transport goods and people west. Then, it opened the gateway to constructing more railroads.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    This war was fought between 1812 and 1816 between America and Britain. The British navy was impressing American crews, taking the seamen and force them to work on British ships. The French and British would block the United States, preventing it from not trading with anyone, specifically each other. Federalists didn't want to go with war claiming that the war advocates were just trying to exploit their agenda. The Treaty of Ghent ended this war and many called it a "second war of independence".
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    Lowell, Massachusetts was a town named after Francis Cabot Lowell and was founded specifically for the purpose of manufacturing textiles. It introduced a different way of employment and urban development. The workers in these mills were young women/children. Over time, the owners would start adding on more hours without raising the pay. The workers would then go on strike, proving to be unsuccessful. This showed the owners they were too much trouble so they started hiring Irish immigrants.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Even though the War of 1812 had officially ended, the news didn't get to Andrew Jackson fast enough so he fought. He gathered a mixed militia that consisted of anyone willing to fight such Indians, slaves, and pirates. This was one of the bloodiest and most memorable battles. They defeated the British army and killed thousands of their men, ruining their plans of invading the American frontier. This battle rose Andrew Jackson to fame and was considered one of the greatest victories in history.
  • New National Bank

    New National Bank
    The 2nd National Bank operated for 20 years. Even though the first bank wasn't renewed because of disagreements, the 2nd one was needed because of financial problems due to the War of 1812. The bank was criticized and believed to be a form of federal control. When Henry Clay decided to run as president, he was able to recharter the bank and make it an issue in the campaign. However, Andrew Jackson won the election. He didn't support the bank and removed its federal funding, therefore ending it.
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland

    McCulloch vs. Maryland
    McCulloch vs. Maryland was another important case to American history. Maryland would try to tax the Second Bank of the United States. James McCulloch would represent the Bank and appealed to the Supreme Court. John Marshall, the chief judge, said the Constitution gave Congress the power to make laws necessary to carry out the document. It also said states had no right to tax anything federal such as the govt. and the bank. It meant Maryland couldn't tax the bank because it was unconstitutional.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 came after the economic success America had for a period of time after the War of 1812. Banking in general was the main cause of this panic. When people were trying to expand westward, they would take out loans through the bank.Then when it came time to pay back these loans, they didn't have any money. The banks were also issuing too many loans and had poor management. Credit was being given then taken away. It was chaos that led to bankruptcies and foreclosures everywhere.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was created to limit/outlaw the consumption/production of alcohol. Many people believed that if they kept living in their immoral ways, they would no longer be blessed by God.However this wasn't the only reason. Many women were tired of their husbands getting drunk and beating them. Even if they couldn't completely get rid of alcohol, they wanted to at least reduce the consumption by a lot. The Civil War put this issue to the side, but it continued once the war was over.
  • Mormons

    The Mormon religion was establish by Joseph Smith. He claimed that an angel visited him and told him of ancient Hebrew text that only he was able to understand. He would translate the text and create the Book of Mormon. Smith would set up communities for Mormons in places such as Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. However, they were heavily criticized by Christians and Smith along with his brother would be murdered in a jail cell by an anti-Mormon mob. His successor led the Mormons to settle in Utah.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    In this election, the House of Representatives had to choose the winner since none of the candidates won the majority of the electoral vote. Even though Jackson had the most electoral and popularity votes out of all the other candidates, he still didn't become president. John Quincy Adams beat him. Apparently, Henry Clay used his position in the House of Representatives to convince and influence them to choose Adams as the president. Once chosen, he appointed Clay as his Secretary of State.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    During the presidential election of 1824, none of the candidates received a majority of the electoral votes. Therefore, Congress turned the election over to the HOR. Even though it was revealed that Jackson won both the electoral and popular vote, Adams won and became president. He won because Henry Clay used his position from the House to persuade them to choose Adams. Clay was then appointed Secretary of State. Jackson and his supporters claimed it was rigged and that's why Jackson didn't win.
  • Charles Grandison Finney

    Charles Grandison Finney
    Charles Finney was born in 1792. He started off studying law but left that career to start preaching. He got mixed reactions because his style of preaching was different from the kind people were normally used to. Then, he would start getting crowds of people listening to and appreciating his preaching in 1825. However, he also had people who didn't support him. The Old School Presbyterians would disagree with many of the things he would say. Today, he is called the father of modern revivalism.
  • Stephen F. Austin

    Stephen F. Austin
    Austin was known as the Father of Texas. He brought 300 families into the Texan territory and successfully colonized it. He tried to stay on good terms with Mexico and helped prevent a rebellion. Austin even introduced slaved, an issue of great interest to him, in this territory even though Mexico prevented it. He ran in the 1836 Texas presidential election but was defeated by Sam Houston. However, Austin would be appointed as Secretary of State, a position he stayed in until his death.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    In this election, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams competed against each other again for presidency. This time, they took out all the dirt they could find to use against each other. They would personally attack each other and campaign like crazy. However, Jackson would finally win this election. It unfortunately came at a dire consequence. Since there were so many nasty things being said about him, his wife saw it and was appalled. Shortly after Jackson's victory, she dies of a heart attack.
  • Age of the Common Man

    Age of the Common Man
    The age of the common man lasted from Andrew Jackson's presidency to the Civil War. He was the first one to not be born into a rich family and be educated while being the last to serve in the AR.He was able to relate with the common folk by showcasing his relatable background. Jackson made people believe that the power was finally in their hands and they were able to control the outcomes of political situations such as elections. He stayed popular by showing interest in common peoples' problems.
  • Telegraph

    The telegraph was originally invented by William Cook and Charles Wheatstone. However, it would be modified and made simpler by Samuel Morse. It would send electric signals though wires set up between stations. To help make the process easier, Samuel also created Morse code, which was a set of dots and lines assigned to each letter. Morse sent his first message in 1844.The first line set across an ocean was in the Atlantic ocean on 1866. Ezra Cornell invented the insulation used for these lines.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    This act was signed by Andrew Jackson. Americans settled into territories where Indians were already living. They wanted the land all to themselves so they would make the Indians move to reserves set aside for them. As Americans kept expanding and settling more, they would change the location of the reserves and make the Indians move more. The Indians thought that if they willingly gave their land they would be able to keep part of it. However, this didn't work and they were just kicked off.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a network dedicated to helping escaped slaves. It contained people who would offer their home and aid. It operated from the late 18th century to the Civil War. It started off with slaves running away. They were usually on their own in the deep south until they got up north, where they would receive more help. However, the Fugitive Slaves Act would make it hard for them to escape. Some famous "conductors" were Harriet Tubman,John Brown, and Frederick Douglass.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was a slave allowed to preach. He would claim that God chose him to lead. Turner believed the eclipse of the sun was the signal to begin his rebellion. He proceeded to gather slaves to lead what is considered the most effective slave rebellion in American history. They managed to secure horses and arms and killed Turner's owner and his family along with 55 white people. Even though he became a fugitive, he was eventually caught and hung. The North considered this rebellion as heroic.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis occurred during Andrew Jackson's presidency. There was a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government because South Carolina declared the Tariffs of 1828/1832 unconstitutional. They felt as if it wasn't fair they were getting taxed so much and decrease in taxes from 1828 to 1832 wasn't enough. Therefore, they considered it null in their state. They were also threatening to secede because of this. However, in 1833 negations were made that SC happy.
  • Sam Houston

    Sam Houston
    Sam Houston was born in 1793. He had many careers when he resided in Tennessee. Eventually, he would move to Texas and became commander of the local army that would fight against Mexico in the Mexican-American War. They would defeat Santa Anna and secured Texas' independence. He would be voted as president for two terms in 1836. Even though he supported slavery, he still believed in preserving the Union. Houston accomplished many things such as avoiding warfare with Mexico and the Indians.
  • Iron Plow

    Iron Plow
    The plow was used to turn/break up soil, control weeds, and bury crop residues. It's origins is said to be a stick, then using handles to pull/push the plow. Over time, it kept getting modified to make it more effective. John Deere invented the all steel piece and moldboard. At first, it would be dragged by people. However, it would start getting heavier and would have to be pulled by animals such as horses or mules. As it got even heavier, it would get pulled by machinery such as tractors.
  • William Miller

    William Miller
    Miller was an American Baptist preacher born in 1782. He was in the War of 1812. After that, he returned to him hometown to regain Baptist faith. When he finally converted, he was challenged by his Deist friends to justify his new faith. He did this by examining the Bible. After studying the Bible, he believed Christ's Second Coming was revealed in the Bible as a prophecy. He took his time to make sure he had the dates right and then publicized this information, leading the way for Millerism.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

    Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Emerson was a poet, philosopher, and essay writer born in Boston, Massachusetts. His most known essay is titled Self Reliance. He would give lectures in the 1830's and then publish them as essays after. He was the main person known in his group of people known as the American Transcendentalists who believed people could move into a "deeper spiritual experience" through free will and intuition. He died in 1882 and his documents are considered important ones from 19th century American literature.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was the belief that American expansion should and will occur from coast to coast. It fueled western settlements and would bring many conflicts such as war with Mexico and the removal of the Native Americans. The term was first said by John L. O'Sullivan in an article. It was used by people who wanted to secure Oregon Territory, California, and land Mexico owned in the Southwest. Even though it was originally a Democratic belief, over time Republicans would support this idea.
  • Texas Annexation

    Texas Annexation
    Once Texas gained their independence from Mexico, they would become their own country for a while. However, they struggled and when they were offered from the U.S. the opportunity to be annexed into the U.S., they agreed and took the offer. However, Democrats opposed this because they knew Texas was a slave state and they didn't want any more. Sam Houston would be elected as Texas' president but unfortunately he lost it when Texas entered the U.S. as a slave state. Texas became the 28th state
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    This war was the first one America mostly fought on foreign soil. It began because of the Manifest Destiny and wanting to expand. The U.S. army was under Zachary Taylor's command. America officially declared war on May 13. Santa Anna would betray Polk by promising that if allowed to return to Mexico, he would end the war. However, he instead took control of the army and led them into battle. Eventually, America seized Mexico's Chapultepec Castle, forcing Santa Anna to resign and ending the war.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The convention was the first women's rights convention held in the United States. It would be held in Seneca Falls, New York. About 200 women attended. It was organized by two abolitionists who met at another convention in London where they weren't allowed at the convention. The convention was a two day process, where only women went to the first day and then the rest of the population was invited the second day. This event saw the creation of the Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty was signed by Mexico and America, ending the Mexican-American war, leaving America victorious. It began with a dispute over Texas. Even though Mexico technically owned this land, American colonists would settle in this territory and wouldn't follow Mexican laws. This treaty gave not only Texas to America, but it also included Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. Mexico was also forced to recognize the Rio Grande River as Texas' southern border.
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    The former president, James Polk, didn't seek re-election because he had already accomplished his major goals and was suffering from health issues. It was open to anyone. The Whigs would nominated who they considered the hero of the war, Zachary Taylor. The Democrats nominated Lewis Cass while the Free Soil party nominated Martin Van Buren. Taylor won the election with over 160 electoral votes and more than a million popular votes. Taylor was the only one of two Whigs who became President.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush was ignited by gold nuggets being discovered in the Sacramento Valley. It is considered an important event that shaped American history. Thousands of people traveled to California after word spread that there was gold just waiting to be mined. The population increased dramatically and increased California's economy. In order to help out the mines, businesses popped up to help with things such as food and supplies. However, the mining would decrease as the supply did.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 solved many issues that, like the ones that came with the land America gained in the Mexican-American War. They were divided on slavery so it admitted California as a free state while leaving Utah and New Mexico to decide with popular sovereignty. This compromise also settled the Texas boundary dispute with NM and ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C. It also made it easier for southerners to get back their fugitive slaves with a new version of the Fugitive Slave Act.
  • Winfield Scott

    Winfield Scott
    Winfield Scott was an U.S. army officer, politician, and general of the Union army during the Civil War. He was also in the Mexican American War and recognized as one of the most smartest commanders. Scott commanded the in the Battles of Williamsburg, Antietam, and Chancellorsville. However, his most known battle was the Battle of Gettysburg. After the war, he still participated in the Civil War. In the year 1880, he ran for president. Unfortunately, he lost to James Garfield by a slight miss.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe who was an abolitionist. This story opened up many of the Northerners eyes to the harsh realities of slavery. It was also one of the causes of the Civil War. It became the best selling book of the 19th century and the 2nd best selling book of the century coming right after the Bible. It also sold successfully in other countries such as Britain. The book came after the tightening of the fugitive slave laws and made Stowe known to Lincoln.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas was the violent period where pro and anti slavery forces clashed while the Kansas territory was being settled. The groups would rush into Kansas while it was being determined if it would become a free or slave state. They would vote and hope their influence would decide the outcome of the state. However, it was seen as fraud because people would come from out of state to vote. Since the opposing groups were in the same state, they would confront each other in violent situations.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    Brown was a famous abolitionist. He led many rebellions but this was his famous one. He gathered a small group of people to a federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plan was to take all the weapons and revolt, believing that a huge group of slaves would come join him in his mission. However. nobody came and he was left alone with his small group. Robert E. Lee would lead the army who would get Brown to surrender. He was tried and found guilty. Brown died from his execution, being hung.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    There were four candidates in this election; John C. Breckinridge, Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and John Bell. Northern Dem. believed Douglas could defeat the "Black Republicans". Even though he supported slavery, he he also supported popular sovereignty, which allowed territories to choose if they were slave states or not. Therefore, southern democrats left the convention without choosing a candidate. The Republicans took advantage of this and nominated Lincoln, who ended up winning.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee is most known for his role in the Civil War. However, he was also the Mexican war which distinguished him. He was the commander of the Confederacy and led them during the war. Lee became commander of the Army of Northern Virginia in the year 1861. His greatest victory was the Battle of Chancellorsville. However one of his biggest defeats, aside from his surrender, was in the Battle of Gettysburg. He lost a huge portion of his army in the bloody battle. Lee surrendered in 1865.
  • Trent Affair

    Trent Affair
    During the Civil War, there was a crisis between the U.S. and Great Brit. When 2 Confederate soldiers went on a British ship to try to get help, the U.S. navy illegally captured the Conf. diplomats. Britain got deeply offended and said they wanted them released or they risk fighting. However Lincoln and his advisers didn't want to risk this because they already were in a war. The Conf. knew their only hope was Britain intervening and helping them fight. Eventually, the diplomats were released.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    When the Civil War began, Abraham Lincoln didn't officially make it about slavery. He said it was about preserving the Union. However, he changed his mind when the Confederacy was trying to get Britain to help them out. Since Britain knew it wasn't technically about slavery, they were willing to help. But once Lincoln officially changed it, they were forced to back off. The Proclamation stated that all slaves in the "rebellious states" were free until the states stopped fighting and rejoined.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was the most fatal and bloodiest battle of the war. In both the Confederacy and the Union combined, over forty thousand people lost their lives. Even though the Confederacy was victorious at first, the Union was eventually able to turn the tides to be able to overpower them and run them out. This battle, along with the Vicksburg battle, would change the war and turned it to the Union's side. After this Battle, Lincoln gave his famous speech, The Gettysburg Address.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    This plan was also known as the Amnesty and Reconstruction Plan. It was Lincoln's very lenient approach to the South after the Civil War. In order to be readmitted back into the country, the state had to take an oath to the Union. It would pardon all southerners except officers and officials. If 10 percent of the population took the oath, the state would be eligible to apply for federal recognition and allowed to form new state governments. Out of all the plans proposed, this was the easiest.
  • Forty Acres and A Mule

    Forty Acres and A Mule
    Forty Acres and a Mule was a policy meant to help African American men after the Civil War. There was land taken by Union forces or abandoned by the planters. The African Americans were allowed to rent or own this land in order to help them advance in their life. Many saw this as an opportunity for freedom and to make a living. They were allowed 40 acres and entitled to a mile. However, Andrew Jackson intervened and returned the land back to the previous owners, displacing thousands of AA men.
  • Ku Klux Klan

    Ku Klux Klan
    The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1865. It was a group of white men who resented black whites. They believed that whites were the superior race. It also became popular because it made poor whites feel like they weren't the bottom of the social ladder. This group advocated white supremacy and white nationalism. They would violently punish blacks and any whites who supported them. Even though the government tried to stop this violence, other issues came up that they considered more important.
  • Freedom Amendments

    Freedom Amendments
    After the Civil War, three amendments were passed because of slavery; the 13th, 14th, and 15th. The 13th amendment abolished slavery in 1865. The 14th amendment, ratified in 1868, claimed anyone born in the United States was considered a citizen. The 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, gave African Americans the right to vote. However, it only gave men this right. Women would still be left out. White people disagreed with these amendments because they didn't want black people equal to them.
  • Abraham Lincoln Assassination

    Abraham Lincoln Assassination
    Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on 1865 by John Wilkes Booth. 5 days after the Appomattox Courthouse surrender, Lincoln, along with his wife, Henry Rathbone, and his fiance, attended a play at Ford's Theater. They were in a private booth that wasn't being secured. Since Booth was a regular the the theater, he didn't raise any suspicions be being there. He snuck into Lincoln's booth and shot him in the head. Even though the bullet didn't kill him right away, it killed him over the next few days.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black Codes were laws created to restrict the freed blacks' and guarantee labor from them. It was considered unofficial slavery and would limit civil rights and their economic opportunities. One of the laws outlawed interracial marriage while another outlawed them the right to serve on juries. Many blacks were required by the state to sign yearly labor contracts or they risked being arrested, fined, or forced into unpaid labor. Mississippi and South Carolina enforced the first Black Codes.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses was the 18th president and commander of the Union during the Civil War. He also fought in the Mexican-American War. He became a national hero after the Civil War and was nominated to run for president by the Republicans. His most important focuses were reconstruction, reconciling the North/South, and protecting the civil rights of the newly freed African Americans. However, he would be involved in many scandals such as the Whiskey Ring that pushed these problems back and he lost focus.
  • Creation of Parks

    Creation of Parks
    The first idea of a park is credited to George Catlin. When he visited the Great Plains, he became concerned about the destruction of the environment and wrote there should be a policy protecting it, in a "park" for humans and animals to roam. In 1872, Congress established Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming and Montana. The Organic Act was signed in 1916 and made to ensure in the conservation of the wild life, scenery, and historic objects. This was to ensure that people could relax here.
  • Mississippi Plan

    Mississippi Plan
    The Mississippi Plan was created by the Democratic party. It was meant to punish any Republicans and black former slaves. They didn't like the fact that blacks now had rights, were allowed to vote, and the Republicans were supporting them. They would use violence to suppress the black votes and start to rebel, testing the waters. Ulysses refused to send in troops and the Democrats took this as a sign of weakness. Their tactics would then start spreading to the rest of the southern states.
  • Whiskey Ring Scandal

    Whiskey Ring Scandal
    This scandal involved hundreds of people across the country, including whiskey distillers, IRS agents, and politicians. Federal agents would be paid bribes by whiskey distillers so they could help them escape the taxes put on whiskey. Even though the tax was 70 cents per gallon, they only paid 35, making a huge profit. U.S. Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow brought this scandal to the public's attention and busted people involved. Through trials, over 3 million dollars were recovered.
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    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Cultural Changes

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    Age of Jackson

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    The Civil War

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