DCUSH 1301 Timeline

Timeline created by AdrianM01
  • 3,000 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    Thousands of years ago, sea levels worldwide dropped and a land bridge emerged from the sea and connected the two continents of Asia and North America.Most scientists think this was the route traveled by the first settlers of the Americas, as they followed animals from Siberia into Alaska and from there to the rest of North and South America.This was important in my timeline because it was the origin of all the Native Americans and how they arrived in America, through nomadic hunting.
  • 117


    The Roman civilization lasted about 500 years, and at the height of the civilization, Rome had expanded as far north as Britain, as far south as Egypt and stretched from Present-day Portugal in the west, to present-day Syria in the east. Rome had accomplished many incredible feats, including the system of aqueducts, the foundation of a republic including a senate, the paving of Roman roads, and its military excellence. Rome reached its height of civilization in 117 AD, until its fall in 476
  • 476

    The Dark Ages

    The Dark Ages
    The dark Ages began shortly after the fall of the roman empire, as many diverse tribes, such as the franks, goths, Visigoths, Germanic peoples and many other barbarians were fighting for control and caused chaos to erupt across the entire continent for about a couple centuries. Many people were being slaughtered as different European tribes conquered their on parts of present-day Europe. During this time there were a couple of Muslim conquests, which eventually led to the crusades.
  • 1200


    The Aztec people were people who arrived in Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. From the impressive capital city, Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs emerged as the dominant power in central Mexico, developing a social, political, religious and commercial organization that brought many of the region under their control by the 15th century. In Mesoamerican culture, human sacrifices were viewed as repayment for the sacrifice the gods had themselves made in creating the world and the sun.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The renaissance was a major movement that began in Florence, Italy around the 14th century. "Renaissance" means rebirth in French,and so it was because it was the rebirth of new cultural and scientific ideas from the classical era of Greece and Rome. People like Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and the rest of the ninja turtles revolutionized art and sculpture, as well as architecture and engineering. Art and science flourished and these ideas would become the basis for more generations to come
  • 1492

    Exploration (Colombus)

    Exploration (Colombus)
    The Age of exploration had begun when Christopher Columbus arrived in Hispaniola in 1492,with the permission of the King and queen of Spain.Columbus thought he had reached India, but instead reached the Bahamas,which then was home to a tribe of the Taino people.He them as threats and instantly slaughtered almost everyone, and most taino died of disease by coming into contact with Europeans.Columbus took slaves and spices back home and died thinking he'd made it to Asia,when in reality,he did not
  • English Colonization

    English Colonization
    One of England's first attempts at colonization was when they tried to set up a colony at Roanoke Island in 1587. They called the colony the John White Colony, but it would become known as the Lost Colony because it is a mystery as to why the colony disappeared. The John White Colony was suffering from problems with Native Americans and lack of food and supplies. John white left to scout, but when he came back, all the people were gone and all that was left was the word CRO carved on a tree.
  • Virginia

    Virginia was one of the first places settled in the present-day united states by England and was named after Elizabeth I, "the virgin queen". The first settlers arrived in 1607, hoping to find gold and silver, which the colonists could not find. After the first winter, only about 30 colonists survived and proved this new land was brutal. The remaining colonists only managed to survive on one crop; tobacco. They grew and sold it and established the 1st permanent colony which they named Jamestown
  • Plymouth

    The Plymouth Colony, America's first permanent Puritan settlement, was established by English Separatist Puritans in 1620. The Pilgrims sought religious freedom, and left England to find a better life.They set sail from Plymouth, England, on Sept. 16,1620, aboard the Mayflower,spending 65 days at sea.41 male passengers signed the Mayflower Compact, which was first example of colonial self-government.The Pilgrims finally landed at the site of present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, on Dec. 26, 1620.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Massachusetts Bay Colony
    In 1629, King Charles I of England granted the Massachusetts Bay Colony a charter to trade between the Charles and Merrimack Rivers, and settlement began in 1630. Boston was made capital in 1632, and the charter was revoked in 1684. Two years later, all New England colonies were united into the Dominion of New England. A new charter was issued in 1691 that joined the Massachusetts ,Plymouth, and Maine Colonies as the Province of Massachusetts Bay and placed it under a royal governor.
  • Proprietary Colonies

    Proprietary Colonies
    The Proprietary colonies were grants of land in the form of a charter, for individuals/groups.They were used to settle areas rapidly with British subjects at the proprietors' expense during costly settlement years.They could also be used by the Crown to repay a debt to,or return a favor to a highly placed person.Charters replaced the trading company as the dominant settlement device. The Proprietary colonies included the likes of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware.
  • Pennsylvania

    The Province of Pennsylvania was an English colony in North America that existed from 1682 until 1776, when it joined 12 of the 13 colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S.The Pennsylvania Colony was classified as one of the Middle Colonies.Pennsylvania was first settled as a colony for religious Quakers, who were a group that "trembled at the word of the lord" and sought refuge from oppression back home in England.The colony was named after William Penn, the leader.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 replaced the reigning king James II, with the monarchy of his protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange. The events of the revolution established the power of parliament over the crown, steering Britain on the path towards constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Although bloodshed in England was limited, the revolution was only secured in Ireland and Scotland by force and with much loss of life.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem witch trials began when a couple of girls began to practice witchcraft with their native slave,and began to act very strange and erratic.The people of Salem suspected witchcraft from the native slave Tituba,and soon more girls were beginning to act insane at the same time more people were being accused of practicing witchcraft.Over the course of a couple years, over 150 men, women, and children were accused and the final death toll would be 20, either by hanging or while in jail.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    In the Atlantic Slave Trade, the Spanish, Dutch,and English all followed the Portuguese in transporting enslaved people across the Atlantic.The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database estimates that 12.5 million Africans were sent through the Middle Passage to work in the New World.Many Africans died on their way to the Americas, and those who did arrive often faced conditions worse than slave ships.the Atlantic slave trade would contribute to enshrining a racial hierarchy into New World culture.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The enlightenment was a period of change in certain aspects of life, as European thinkers emerged with new ideas and philosophies in government and science. People began to stray away from their religious beliefs and become more intellectual, thus allowing them to be more independent. The Enlightenment also sparked many new ideas of government. Thinkers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau helped inspire revolutionary war leader to from their new government after independence from Britain.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious movement that impacted the English colonies in America during the 1730's and 1740's. The movement came at a time when the ideas of secular rationalism were being emphasized, and passion for religion was becoming uninteresting to the people of the colonies.Christian leaders often traveled from town to town, preaching about the gospel, emphasizing salvation from sins and promoting enthusiasm for Christianity. The result was a renewed dedication toward religion.
  • New England Economy

    New England Economy
    The four New England Colonies of Colonial America included the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Geography and climate impacted the trade and economic activities of New England Colonies, as farming was difficult sometimes in rocky, cold climate.In the towns along the coast, colonists made their living fishing, whaling, and shipbuilding. The fish included cod, mackerel, bass and more. Whale oil was a valuable resource as it could be used in lamps.
  • Mid-Atlantic Economy

    Mid-Atlantic Economy
    The mid-Atlantic colonies economy came from fishing, lumbering, shipbuilding, and farming.The soil in the mid-Atlantic is very fertile and well suited to farming compared to the New England colonies. The mid-Atlantic's vast wealth of natural resources allowed the region to be very economically successful in many industries.The mid-Atlantic colonies produced wheat, barley, rye, corn, and orchard fruits, and were suited for trade because of their fertile soil and coastal location.
  • Slave Rebellions

    Slave Rebellions
    The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave revolt ever staged in the 13 colonies.In 1739, about 20 slaves under the leadership of a man named Jemmy intended to teach whites with a painful lesson on the African desire for liberty.The slaves fought off the English for more than a week before the colonists rallied and killed most of the rebels.Even after Colonial forces crushed the Stono uprising, outbreaks occurred the very next year,when South Carolina executed at least 50 additional rebel slaves.
  • The French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

    The French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
    The French and Indian War, also known as the Seven years war, was a global conflict that involved Britain against the French forces in their colonies across the world.In this war, fighting was not only exclusive to America, but as well as South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. The war began in 1756 and fighting lasted pretty close to about seven years, with Britain coming out victorious and treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 and France lost all claims to North America
  • Acts of Parliament

    Acts of Parliament
    Parliament passed the Sugar Act which angered the colonists and ignited the American Revolution, as colonists protested that they were being taxed without any representation in British Parliament. This act was followed by the stamp act, the Townsend acts, and the tea Act. The colonists agreed to boycott British goods and took it one step further by dumping tea into the Boston Harbor. The British angrily passed the Intolerable Acts to punish the colonists and stripped them of government authority
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    On March 5,1770, a group of British guards were harassed by a mob,provoking the British soldiers who then fired their muskets pointblank into the crowd,killing three instantly.After the incident,the Royal Governor of Massachusetts withdrew British troops out of Boston and arrested the captain of the British soldiers,along with eight of his men and they were charged with murder.Paul Revere was responsible for painting the mural of unarmed colonists being shot and promoted Patriotism across the US
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    Tensions rose within the colonists as they were angry at how Britain were treating them and wanted to do something to show them that they were not gonna be pushed around and taxed without representation. On December 13, 1773 Samuel Adams' sons of liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians and began to dump imported tea from the motherland into the Boston Harbor. The Brits lost millions of pounds and were going to make an example out of Boston by passing the Coercive Acts, aka the intolerable Acts
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first to kick off the American Revolution,with the rebel retreat at Lexington and a surprising victory at Concord for the colonists.At Lexington, both sides were told not to shoot until they were given the command.A soldier fired at random and to this day, no one knows which side fired the "shot heard 'round the world".The Americans were overrun but emerged on the winning side in Concord when militiamen used guerrilla warfare as a tactical strategy
  • Declaration of Independence (signing)

    Declaration of Independence (signing)
    The Declaration of Independence was drafted by none other than Thomas Jefferson himself, who had completed drafting the constitution 2 days prior to the signing. All the leaders across the states agreed that a declaration must be drafted and sent to the King. Among these delegates were the likes of George Washington, John Adams, Patrick Henry, and John Hancock, the first signer of the document, and many others. This document started with one of the most iconic lines ever written, "We the People"
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    This battle was a very critical one for the young nation because it proved to potential allies that it did indeed have a good chance of winning the war, and with an American victory at Saratoga,France decided to join the United States in fighting the war. It's safe to say that the United States wouldn't have won the war if it weren't for the french.The French provided both troops and supplies that the Americans so desperately needed to win the fight.The United States won both the war and an ally
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The battle of Yorktown was a crucial and decisive battle in the Revolutionary war and is often considered to be the last major battle of the war. The combined American and French troops surrounded general Cornwallis and his British troops, along with some Prussian mercenaries hired to fight alongside them. The British surrendered, and the war would conclude officially 2 years later when the treaty of Paris would be signed in 1783.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1777 by the Continental Congress but ratification by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781.The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power to the states.The need for a stronger Federal government was soon obvious and eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation 8 years later.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's rebellion was the first real test of The United States under the Articles of Confederation. The rebellion was started by Daniel Shays, a farmer and former soldier who fought at Bunker. The rebellion was fueled by opposition of state economic policies causing poverty and property foreclosures. The rebels were mostly ex-Revolutionary War soldiers, and were unhappy at how they received little to no compensation from the weak government. The rebellion was put down but something had to change.
  • 3 branches of government

    3 branches of government
    The 3 branches of government included in the U.S. government include the Legislative,Executive, and Judicial branches.The Legislative branch is the law-making body of the government, with a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Executive branch has the President and his cabinet, and the Judicial Branch is led by the Supreme Court.These branches can override each other in a system of checks and balances, ensuring that no one branch has too much power
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    in 1787, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance, the structuring settlement of the Northwest Territory and create a policy for the addition of new states to the nation. The Ordinance proposed that each territory would have an appointed governor and council. When the population reached 5,000, the residents could elect their own assembly, although the governor would retain veto power. When 60,000 settlers resided in a territory, they could draft a constitution and petition for full statehood.
  • Connecticut Plan

    Connecticut Plan
    This plan was proposed to establish a bicameral legislature.The Great Compromise,or Connecticut Compromise, proposed a solution to the dilemma involving larger and smaller states over their representation in the Senate.The larger states believed that representation should be based size and the smaller states believed that the only fair plan was equal representation. The solution was to have a House of Representatives for the benefit of large states and the senate for the benefit of small states.
  • Federalist (Great Debate)

    Federalist (Great Debate)
    The Federalist party was one of the first political parties in the United States and it dominated the government until the defeat of President John Adams for reelection in 1800. The federalists were among the likes of John Adams, John Marshall, and Alexander Hamilton, who created America;s first national bank of the United States. The party made a lasting impact by laying the foundations of a national economy, creating a national judicial system and creating principles of foreign policy.
  • Anti-Federalist (Great Debate)

    Anti-Federalist (Great Debate)
    The Anti-Federalists were one of the first political factions in the United States and dominated the government following the defeat of President John Adams for reelection in 1800.The Anti-federalists were among the likes of George Mason,Patrick Henry,and Thomas Jefferson,who drafted the declaration of independence.The faction would become the Democratic-Republican party,led by Thomas Jefferson himself.The party was in control until about 1824,and parties became split between Democratic and Whig
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The Election of 1788, America’s first presidential election was held, Voters cast ballots to choose state electors, and only white men who owned property were allowed to vote. As expected, George Washington won the election and was sworn into office in 1789. The U.S. uses the Electoral College system, established by the U.S. Constitution, where the president and vice president are the only elected federal officials chosen by the Electoral College instead of by direct popular vote.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, the Bank of the United States was established in 1791 in order to serve as a repository for federal funds and as the government’s fiscal agent. Although it was well managed and profitable, people charged that the First Bank’s fiscal caution was constraining economic development, and its charter was not renewed in 1811 because critics of the bank worked with opponents of the bank and succeeded in preventing the renewal, so the First Bank went out of operation.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    In order to appease Anti-Federalists, the Federalists imposed a Bill of Rights that contained 10 amendments to protect the individual rights of the people of America.
    1) the freedom of speech,press,religion,and petition
    2) the right to bear arms
    3) no quartering of troops
    4) no unreasonable searches or seizures
    5) no self-incrimination
    6) right to a speedy trial
    7) right to a jury in civil cases
    8) no cruel or unusual punishment
    9) rights retained by the people
    10) rights retained by states
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey rebellion was the first real test of the newly drafted constitution, as the 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania protested a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government.Following years of aggression with tax collectors, the region finally exploded in a confrontation that had President Washington responded by sending troops and stop a full-blown revolution. Washington put the rebellion down just by showing up, bringing down the federal hammer on the people
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    George Washington decided to set the precedent of two terms per president, which almost everyone seemed to follow. In 1796, federalist John Adams would win the election against Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson. Political issues began to tense things between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans and was furthered by foreign policy disputes. At the time the Constitution stated that the candidate with the second highest total of votes would become vice president, so Jefferson was VP
  • Adams presidency

    Adams presidency
    During John Adams time as POTUS, Britain and France were at war, which directly affected American trade.Tensions were escalating overseas, so he sought to negotiate a treaty with France but they refused to meet with the delegates, but the foreign minister demanded a large bribe. Adams refused, and the scandal became known as the XYZ Affair. The U.S. and France attacked each other overseas in 1798 and lasted until 1800, when a peace treaty was signed. Adams presidency was defined by this event
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The election of 1800 pitted Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson against Federalist John Adams,and was also a referendum on two different visions of America. The Federalists envisioned a strong central government while the Democratic-Republicans centered on the values of the farmer. The election of 1800 was one of the most bitter presidential elections in US history. Despite the hostility of the campaigns and the election, John Adams lost the presidency to his greatest enemy,Thomas Jefferson.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was a purchase of mass territory stretching about 800,000 square miles of land. Sold to President Jefferson from Napoleon Bonaparte himself, the land went for about $15 million.The land nearly doubled the size of the United States.Napoleon sold this land to the United States so he could fund his Napoleonic conquests in Europe. The purchase was essential to the young nation and would provide easy access to the Mississippi as well as control of surrounding areas for farming
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    The Lewis and Clark Expedition began in 1804 when President Jefferson asked Meriwether Lewis to explore the lands acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.Lewis chose William Clark as co-leader for the mission,and the two set out on a long journey that lasted over two years,confronting harsh weather, terrain, disease,as well as both friendly and hostile Natives.The journey was a success and provided important scientific and geographical information about previously unexplored areas of North America.
  • Hamilton vs Burr

    Hamilton vs Burr
    Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr were bitter enemies, so one day they agreed to a duel. Duels were common in America at the time, and the rules governing them usually led to an honorable resolution before any actual firing of weapons. With Burr, however, on July 11, 1804, the enemies met at the dueling grounds near Weehawken, New Jersey. Burr shot Hamilton in the stomach, and the bullet lodged next to his spine. Hamilton was taken back to New York, and he died the next afternoon.
  • Madison presidency

    Madison presidency
    James Madison won the election of 1808 and became the fourth president of the U.S. Madison wrote the constitution and was president during the War of 1812. During the war a prisoner aboard a ship named Francis Scott key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner* which later became the national anthem for The United States. Madison was also president at the time when The First Bank of the United States closed.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The war of 1812 was caused by the constant impressment of American sailors by British ships, and lasted about 2 years with no clear winner.The Americans and British burned each other capitals in Washington and Toronto, with a few notable battles such as the battle of New Orleans, with Andrew Jackson rising as a prominent figure in an American victory. The treaty of Ghent effectively ended the war, and USA and Britain agreed to draw the border between USA and Canada at the 49th parallel.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    the British planned to invade New Orleans, but standing in the way of them was General Andrew Jackson.Nicknamed “Old Hickory” for his toughness, Jackson had no love for the British—he’d spent time as their prisoner during the Revolutionary War—and he was itching for a chance to confront them in battle. The assault on Jackson’s fortifications was chaos,costing the British some 2,000 casualties,and all of it in the span of only 30 minutes.Amazingly, Jackson’s ragtag army had lost less than 100 men
  • McCulloch vs.Maryland

    McCulloch vs.Maryland
    This Supreme Court case was one of the most famous of all time, this case established one of the first and most important cases on federal power. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress held implied powers not explicitly listed in the U.S. Constitution.The “Necessary and Proper” Clause gave Congress the power to establish a national bank.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was a document in which President James Monroe ordered that the Americas were not to be subject to be colonized from any European superpower, and that any country who dare disobey the doctrine, will have to face the full wrath of the United States military. One reason this document was effective was because the European powers were well aware of the military strength of the young nation after what they'd seen in the war of 1812 against Britain.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The election of 1824 mainly involved John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson, as well as senator Henry Clay. Though Jackson had received the majority of the popular vote, no one reached the majority of electoral college votes. Henry Clay knew he was not going to win, and a deal was struck between Adams and Clay. Clay would give his electoral votes to Adams so he could win the presidency and their party could be in power. Andrew Jackson would call it the "corrupt bargain" and would get revenge.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    As early as the 1820's, the successes of new transportation were clear. Steamboats played a vital role in opening the west and south to further settlement.They stimulated the agricultural economy of the west by providing better access to markets at a lower cost. Canals also were a great way to move around.Completed in 1825, the Erie canal ran 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. The canal also provided a water route from New York to Chicago, and marked the beginning of Chicago’s rapid growth.
  • John Q. Adams presidency

    John Q. Adams presidency
    As president, Adams faced hostility from Jackson's supporters in Congress, which explained his few accomplishments while in the White House. He proposed federal funding of an interstate system of roads and canals and the creation of a national university, and The Erie Canal was completed while Adams was in office, linking the Great Lakes to East Coast. Adams also wanted to provide Native Americans with territory in the West, but like many of his attempts,it failed to find support in Congress.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening is typically regarded as less emotionally charged than the First Great Awakening. It led to the founding of several colleges, seminaries and mission societies. It also led to the founding of the Mormon church, or the church of latter-day saints, a people who did not own slaves and practiced polygamy. They were constantly harassed and threatened off their land, so they sought religious refuge out west in what is now present-day Salt lake City, Utah.
  • Age of common man

    Age of common man
    The age of the common man began when Andrew Jackson returned as a candidate for president. Jackson came from humble beginnings, and building up his on empire through his military career and had transformed himself into a great military leader. This idolized the idea that the common man had the power to be a leader. The Jacksonian era changed this, when for the first time in history, everyday people began to cast in their ballots.Voting was no longer for the rich, but very much for the common man
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The election of 1828 was one of the nastiest presidential elections of all time, as the candidates on both ends were personally attacked. Jackson and his wife were accused of adultery because Rachel had not been legally divorced from her first husband when she married Jackson. Jackson won, but shortly after his victory against Henry Clay in 1828, Rachel died at the Hermitage; Jackson and believed the negative attacks had caused her death. Jackson would mourn her death and never forgive her death
  • Jackson Administration

    Jackson Administration
    In Jackson's time as president, he was known for battling the Nullification crisis and the Bank of the United states. One major battle between two emerging political parties involved the Bank of the United States, the charter of which was due to expire in 1832. Andrew Jackson opposed the bank, and saw that the bank dissolved. In 1832, South Carolina nullified federal tariffs within state boundaries, so Jackson sent troops to South Carolina to enforce federal laws,and Jackson preserved the Union.
  • Labor changes

    Labor changes
    One of the major changes in labor was the Lowell mills, which introduced a new system of manufacturing to the United States and established employment of about 8,000 textile workers, commonly known as mill girls, whose employment brought a sense of freedom. Unlike most young women at the time, they were able to earn money, and had educational opportunities.The factory system was often seen as a form of slavery and people often campaigned against the harsh working conditions and long hours.
  • Growing cities

    Growing cities
    Many people moved to cities in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Many immigrants lived especially people form rural areas migrating to urban areas. While growth of production of goods and other services were being well provided, growing cities faced the problem's of crowding, and noise.People lived in slums due to lack of housing in some areas, especially immigrants.Some cities would eventually grow big thanks to a functioning economy,trade and resources.One example of a booming city is New York
  • Southern society

    Southern society
    In Southern society, there were mostly only 3 classes of farmers. At the top you had the planters, who were the very wealthy elites, and owned about 100 slaves and a ton of land. Below them were the Yeoman farmers, who owned a decent amount of slaves and were middle-class citizens. Below them were the poor whites, or tenant farmers, who made up the majority of the South. These people dream of owning lots of land and slaves. And finally, the African slaves were at the bottom of Southern Society.
  • Native Americans

    Native Americans
    Native Americans suffered and had everything taken from them. When Gold was found where the Cherokee lived, people demanded that the U.S. gain control of property owned by tribes and their members.This was supported by POTUS Andrew Jackson, and Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. The act entitled the president to forcibly remove Indians from their land and relocate them to lands west of the Mississippi. The 5,000 mile journey was known as the Trail of Tears, where many died along the way.
  • Slavery (abolitionist movements)

    Slavery (abolitionist movements)
    The abolitionist movement was a social and political push for the freedom of all slaves and the end of mistreatment. Advocating for emancipation separated abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates, who argued for gradual emancipation, and wanted to stop its spread. The abolitionist movement became increasingly intense, as many works of literature were produced, such as the famous novel "Uncle Toms Cabin", which described the horrors of slavery, and popular among abolitionists.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism was a 19th-century movement of writers and philosophers in New England who believed in a system of thought based on a belief in the reasonable goodness of people and nature. Adherents believe that society and its institutions have corrupted the purity of the people, and they have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. This movement began in the late 1820's and 1830's, but the root of its values trace back to Colonial America
  • Slavery

    Nat Turner enlisted the help of other slaves in the area and killed the Travis family,managed to secure arms and horses,and enlisted about 75 other slaves in a disorganized insurrection that resulted in the murder of 50 white people.Turner hid for six weeks until his discovery and was hanged at Jerusalem, Virginia, along some of his followers. The incident put fear in the heart of Southerners,resulting in harsher laws against slaves,and deepened the schism between slave-holders and free-spoilers
  • Election of 1832

    Election of 1832
    In the election of 1832, President Andrew Jackson was looking to run for re-election against Henry Clay,who was opposed by former William Wirt of Maryland, a candidate for the first third party. Jackson’s opponents hoped to distract him by rushing through Congress a bill to recharter the of the Bank of the United States, which was due to expire in 1836. Clay,forced Jackson to choose between signing the measure or vetoing it.Jackson ultimately vetoed the bill, and still manage to win the election
  • Temperance movement

    Temperance movement
    The Temperance movement was a movement dedicated to promoting abstinence from consuming alcohol. By 1833 there were 6,000 local societies in several U.S. states. Some temperance advocates worked to great effect outside the organized movement. Temperance and abstinence became the objects of education and legislation in many regions. The modern temperance movements were defined by organized cooperation of women. The banning of alcohol was believed to be a reasonable way of living
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    Many changes in communication were being pioneered but the main one developed in the 1830's and 1840's by Samuel Morse. The telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse developed Morse code and allowed for transmission of messages across telegraph lines. In 1844, Morse sent his first telegraph message, from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Texas Independence

    Texas Independence
    The struggle for Texan independence from Mexico began when a very overwhelming amount of Anglo-American people moved into the province states of Coahuila and Texas,and later Santa Anna became dictator.Mexican troops tried to recover a cannon from Gonzales,but the response from Texas was war.With a few losses at the Alamo and Goliad,the Texans won the war and their independence in the Battle of San Jacnito.Texas was quickly trying to be annexed by the US, but were halted over the issue of slavery
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    Many different changes in agriculture were taking course.John Deere figured out a way to make things easier for farmers by constructing a plow that was made of polished steel, designing his first in 1837, by taking an old steel saw blade and polishing it up.The crank churn was a simple device where the user turned a handle that directly rotated a dasher inside a stabilized barrel. Most importantly, the cotton gin quickened production of cotton, which made the South rich in the mid 19th century.
  • The Oregon Trail

    The Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail was a grueling 2,000-mile route from Missouri to Oregon,which was used by hundreds of thousands of American pioneers in the mid-1800's to move west,especially during the California Gold Rush.It was critical for travelers to leave early Spring if they hoped to reach Oregon before the winter snows began.The completion of the first transcontinental railroad in Utah in 1869 marked the end of westward wagon trains as settlers chose the faster and more reliable mode of transportation.
  • Millenialism

    In Millenialism, much of religious enthusiasm at the time was based on the belief that the world would end with the second coming of Christ.William Miller gained thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur,and predicted that Christ would return to earth sometime in 1843.The failure of Miller’s prophecy,the so-called “Great Disappointment,”didn't anger many of his followers, who still believed in him but felt that only Miller’s calculations were faulty.
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    The election of 1844 was one of the most critical elections because it involved the notion of whether or not Texas would be annexed into the Union. Democrat James K.Polk and Whig Henry Clay circled the issue of slavery, which arose because of both the proposed annexation of Texas.Polk fundamentally opposed positions on the issue by characterizing it as a states’ rights concern,while Clay was opposed to annexation.The Democrats’ strategy secured Polk's victory, and he'd become the 11th POTUS
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag Revolt was a short-lived independence rebellion by American settlers in California against Mexican authorities, involving the capture of Sonoma, a major settlement north of San Francisco. They issued a declaration of independence,rose a flag with a white background and a grizzly bear facing a red star.John C. Fremont arrived at Sonoma and gave his support to the Bear Flag Revolt,and would be chosen to head the “Republic of California.”US troops later captured & occupied California
  • Mexican-American war

    Mexican-American war
    The Mexican-American war began over border disputes with Texas,with Mexico declaring the Nueces river as the border,and the Americans the Rio Grande.Polk sent troops to provoke Mexico,and succeed.Mexican troops fired on American troops on "American soil",thus starting the 2-year Mexican-American war.The Mexican army was no match for America,as Mexico City was taken.A few generals made a name for themselves, including Gen. Zachary Taylor. The war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-hidalgo in 1848
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    The presidential election of 1848 featured Whig candidate Zachary Taylor and Democratic nominee Lewis Cass.James K. Polk said he would only serve one term as president, and kept his promise.The democrats chose a new candidate in Cass.The parties campaigned and, for the first time, the Whigs and the Democrats established national committees to help their efforts.The 1848 election was the first in which all states voted on the same day.The war hero would win and Taylor would become the 12th POTUS
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    In 1848 a carpenter from New Jersey found flakes of gold in the American River at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains near Coloma, California. Thousands of gold miners, known as ’49ers, traveled overland across the west.Throughout 1849, people around the US borrowed money or spent their life savings to make the journey to California. Miners all over left everything behind to come find gold, while women were left behind running farms or businesses and caring for their children alone.
  • Womens suffrage

    Womens suffrage
    The campaign for women’s suffrage began in earnest in the decades before the Civil War. During the 1820's and 30's, most states had extended the vote to all white men, regardless of how much money or property they had. The women were becoming against the notion of being a timid, submissive wife when with a man. In 1848, a group mostly women, but some men gathered in Seneca Falls, New York to discuss the problem of women’s rights. One important figure in the convention was Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Zachary Taylor

    Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor was born in 1784 and served in the army for 40 years, commanding troops in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and the second of the Seminole Wars. He became a full-fledged war hero through his service in the Mexican War, and was Elected president in 1848. Taylor, though a slaveholder, sought to hold the nation together,and clashed with Congress over admitting California to the Union as a free state. In 1850, Taylor suddenly fell ill and died, and would be succeeded by M.Fillmore
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a network of people who offered shelter and help to escaped slaves from the South. It operated from the late 18th century to the Civil War, and most of the slaves helped by the Underground Railroad escaped border states such as Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland. People known as “conductors” guided the fugitive slaves. Hiding places included private homes, churches and schoolhouses. One of the most famed conductors was Harriet Tubman, a prominent leader of the railroad.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was a compromise proposed by Senator Henry Clay involving 5 separate bills. They called for the admission of California as a free state, the strengthening of the Fugitive Slave Law, popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico on whether or not they wanted slaves, the complete abolition of the slave trade in D.C., and the federal assumption of Texas' land in exchange for debt relief. These policies left few happy, and still did not answer the issue of slavery.
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    The United States presidential election of 1852 included which Democrat Franklin Pierce defeated Whig Winfield Scott. The Whig Party’s Last Hurrah
    The election of 1852 was contested in the aftermath of efforts to settle outstanding slavery issues and to hold the Union together. The campaign would be marked by divisions within the political parties over the issue of slavery and would be the last presidential election the Whigs would ever participate in.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas was kind of like a small civil war in the United States, fought between pro-slavery and anti-slavery people for control of the new territory of Kansas under the notion of popular sovereignty. Free-soil forces from the North formed armed emigrant associations to populate Kansas, while pro slavery advocates poured over the border from Missouri. Violence would break out in these areas and would turn deadly and the Pro-slavery forces would often remain dominant.
  • Revivalism

    Revivalism refers to a period in spiritual renewal in the life of the Church, and after 1835 revivalists traveled through the towns and cities of the USA and Great Britain, organizing the occasional revival meetings at the invitation of local pastors who wanted to rejoice with their churches. Among these was a man named Charles Finney, who's revivals achieved success in large cities,and in 1832 he began an almost continuous revival in NYC as minister of the Second Free Presbyterian Church.
  • John Browns Raid

    John Browns Raid
    John Brown was an abolitionist who viewed slaves,or African-Americans,as equal to white people and really wanted to insight a rebellion after he caused the Pottawatomie massacre three years prior. Brown's plan was to start a slave insurrection at a weapons arsenal at a place called Harper's Ferry. Brown took the arsenal fairly easily.However,no slave came and joined him and soon the raid was put down Brown was later executed by hanging,where he was seen as a martyr for the abolitionist movement
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The election of 1860 featured favorite Republican Abraham Lincoln versus two democratic parties,one that favored slavery and one that did not. Abraham Lincoln won the majority of electoral votes overwhelmingly thanks to these split parties.The Democratic South's worst fear became reality,though Lincoln only said he'd do anything to preserve the Union,not stop slavery.Despite this,the south had had enough. South Carolina would be the first state to secede from the Union,followed by 10 more states
  • The North

    The North
    The North had a population advantage, as well as an industrial one. In 1860, the North manufactured almost all of the country's guns, its railroads, its cloth,and boots and shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile.All of the principal ingredients of gunpowder were imported. The US government enabled the blockade, in order to suffocate the South, that way, they can't have any new food or supplies to import so they'll run out of resources
  • The South

    The South
    The Confederacy had a smaller population even with all the slaves, and could produce all the food it needed, though transporting it to soldiers and civilians was a major problem. The South also had great military leadership, and also proved to be very resourceful, as some soldiers would later uses supplies of dead comrades.The South's greatest strength lay in the fact that it was fighting on the defensive in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners could harass Northern troops
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Barton served on sixteen battlefields during the Civil War, including the bloody battle of Antietam. She would work tirelessly to procure supplies, prepare meals,and tend the wounded during some of the goriest battles in the Civil war.She earned the respect of many soldiers, officers, and politicians. She helped found the American Red Cross, which wouldn’t exist as it is today without Barton’s influence. She also believed in equal rights and helped everyone regardless of what side they were on.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, occurred September 17, 1862, at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army against Union General George McClellan’s Army and was the Lee’s attempt to invade the north. The battle would become the deadliest one-day battle in all American military history. After the Union victory president Abraham Lincoln was able to enact the emancipation proclamation,freeing slaves from the rebel states
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    After finishing the Emancipation Proclamation in the summer of 1862, Abraham Lincoln was ready to announce his speech,but was halted after the Union suffered tremendous defeats over and over,the worst of these being the second battle of Bull Run,which was an utter massacre of union troops.At the battle of Antietam, the Union forces managed to drive out Lee's forces and won the decisive battle Lincoln needed.And with that, Lincoln announced his proclamation, freeing the slaves in the rebel states
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    Union forces urged to take the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, which lay on the east bank of the Mississippi River. Vicksburg was one of the Union’s most successful campaigns of the war. Grant sealed the city by the end of May. In three weeks, Grant’s men marched 180 miles, won five battles and captured some 6,000 prisoners.The Siege of Vicksburg would cut and divide the Confederacy in two, and proved the military genius of Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The battle of Gettysburg was a critical battle and turning tide in the favor of the Union, as the Union gained an advantage as many of Lee's best forces were killed. The battle was a crushing defeat for the Confederacy, with General Lee more than a third of Lee’s army was killed. The South's hopes for foreign recognition of the Confederacy were erased. Following the battle Abraham Lincoln decided to deliver the Gettysburg Address, one of the most famous pieces of written literature of all time.
  • Lincolns 10% Plan

    Lincolns 10% Plan
    President Abraham Lincoln began preparing his 10% plan for Reconstruction for after the war’s end.Lincoln’s idea for the Ten-Percent Plan was that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 % of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.Only then Voters could elect delegates to draft state constitutions and establish new state governments. All southerners except for high-ranking Confederate army officers and government officials would be granted a full pardon.
  • Freedom Amendments

    Freedom Amendments
    The freedom amendments are considered to be the 13th, 4th,and 15th amendments because the 13th prohibits slavery anywhere in the country, and was passed in 1865.The 14th amendment granted citizenship to whoever is born in the United States and was passed in 1868,and the 15th amendment gave freedman the vote and was passed in 1870.These are also called the Civil war amendments,as they followed shortly after the Union achieved victory.These can be memorizes as free (13th) citizens(14th) vote(15th)
  • White Resistance

    White Resistance
    The American South’s resistance to northern intervention pushed reconstruction further because they were bitter about the loss of the Civil War. They also viewed the presence of free blacks as an insult to white southern reputation.The tension against Northerners caused the South to react violently as they believed in white supremacy. The South was simply not ready to cooperate with the North, as they lynched and killed many black families across the South.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    The Freedman's Bureau was as established in 1865 by Congress to help millions of both freedmen and poor whites in the South after the Civil War. The Bureau provided food, shelter, medical assistance, established schools and offered legal assistance. They also attempted to settle former slaves on the land that was abandoned by whites during the war. The Bureau was kept from fully carrying out its programs because of a lack of money and help, along with the politics of race and Reconstruction.
  • Assassination

    Abraham Lincoln and his wife were to see a play at Ford's Theatre, but little did they know, a man by the name of John Wilkes Booth and other assassins planned a series of multiple hits on the president, VP, and secretary. Lincoln was shot by Wilkes Booth in the back of the head, and the secretary was also killed. Booth later died in a shootout with the army in a barn the next day. Andrew Johnson was named president of The United States after Lincoln passed away the next morning.
  • Johnson Presidency

    Johnson Presidency
    Andrew Johnson took Reconstruction in a whole new direction than Lincoln had planned.Johnson focused on restoring the Southern states to the Union,and granted amnesty to most former Confederates and allowed the rebel states to elect new governments,which soon enacted black codes.In 1866,Johnson vetoed bills aimed at protecting blacks, and also opposed the 14th amendment.Things between the president and Congress tensed,and in 1868, the House voted to impeach Johnson, he first to ever be impeached
  • Grant's Presidency

    Grant's Presidency
    While in office, Grant's policies were peaceful, as they allowed for pardoning of almost all southerners while at the same time protecting black rights, as well as some resistance groups such as the KKK. In 1870, the 15th amendment was passed, giving all black men the right to vote. 3 years later, during his second term, the nation fell into a depression known as the panic of 1873. Grant's presidency was criticized because some say that he violated states rights or did not do enough for freedman
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Compromise of 1877 was the result of the highly contested election of 1876. To resolve this, Congress set up a meeting with republican and democrat senators, meanwhile, other delegates met in secret to discuss.The deal was that Democrats would allow Rutherford Hayes to become president and recognize black rights, and in exchange all federal troops would be removed from the South.The South didn't kept their promise and Reconstruction would end as Jim Crow laws were made legal across the South
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    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    The Revolutionary Period

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    The Constitution

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    The New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    American Industrial Revolution

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    Age of Jackson

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    Cultural Changes

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    Westward Expansion

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    The Civil War

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