• Period: 1300 to


    Europe entered the Modern Era during the Renaissance (13th–16th century), which brought back humanism, the sciences, and the arts. Jules Michelet coined it, and it changed politics and society by promoting classical principles and opening the door for the Enlightenment. Key people like Michelangelo shaped Western culture. Among the notable pieces is the Sistine Chapel. The period marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Era in the West.
  • Jul 30, 1420

    Florence Cathedral´s dome by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral´s dome by Brunelleschi
    Florence's emblem is the 114.5-meter dome of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, which was constructed between 1420 and 1436 by architect Brunelleschi. It is the first octagonal dome without supports, modelled after the Pantheon. Brunelleschi's leadership was demonstrated by his model at the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. His creations, such as Basilica di San Lorenzo and Ospedale degli Innocenti, redefined the role of the architect in building.
  • 1498

    Pieta by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pieta by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    In contrast to custom, Cardinal Saint Denis
    commissioned Michelangelo for the Vatican Piety in 1498. This Renaissance work of art depicts an idealised image of the Virgin Mary holding a fully grown Jesus, emphasising harmony and beauty. Visual balance is added by the equilateral triangle formation on an elliptical base. Viewed from below, Michelangelo purposefully enlarged Mary's size to correct perspective. Michelangelo only signed this Pietà as a response to scepticism about its veracity.
  • 1509

    The school of Athens , by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens , by Raphael Sanzio
    Renaissance perfection is found in Raphael's "School of Athens" (1508–11), commissioned by Pope Julius II and housed in the Vatican's Stanza della Segnatura. Using Neoplatonic philosophy to explore the historical justification of the Church, "The School of Athens" cleverly allegorizes secular knowledge by presenting Plato and Aristotle. Raphael's compositional and perspective skills are on full display in this masterpiece, which embodies the synthesis of Greek and Christian thought.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The regin of Carlos I

    A global Christian kingdom was the goal of Carlos I, the King of Spain and Emperor of Germany from 1500 until 1558. Despite the richness of America, he had to deal with issues such as the uprising in Castile and the German theological conflict (1521). Due to imperialist practises, victories like Mühlberg (1547) were unable to stop the economic downfall of Castile. Carlos passed away in the Yuste monastery on September 21, 1558, having abdicated in 1555.
  • Period: 1520 to 1521

    The revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    Motivated by political unrest and a fear of losing their position of authority, inland communities rose up against Charles I in the War of the Communities of Castile (1520–1522). Considered as anti-fiscal or anti-seigneurial, the movement led to urban uprisings over tax demands. The communist army fell in 1521 as a result of the executions of leaders Padilla, Bravo, and Maldonado. With differing allegiance to different areas, Toledo resisted until 1522.
  • 1555

    Peace of Absburg

    Peace of Absburg
    The Augsburg Treaty, which was implemented in 1555, served as the first official legal foundation for Lutheranism and Catholicism to coexist peacefully in Germany for all time. It allowed dissidents to emigrate freely and princes to rule their territories. Although it ended the conflict between Lutherans and Catholics, it left out other protestant denominations. Despite its limitations, it prevented serious internal conflicts for over 50 years, leaving Germany divided religiously.
  • Period: 1556 to

    The regin of Felipe II

    Philip II (1556–1598) governed Spain during its ups and downs. The ascent was characterised by triumphs over the Ottomans, American affluence, and the annexation of Portugal; the decline was attributed to conflicts, Dutch independence (1579), the Spanish Armada's defeat (1588), and bankruptcy (1596). Spain reached its zenith during Philip's rule, but colonial exploitation, economic problems, and conflicts all played a part in the collapse of the empire.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    The rebellion of the Alpujarras

    Felipe II's reign in Spain was marked by a battle known as the Alpujarra Rebellion (1568–1571). La práctica Sanción de 1567 limitó las libertades culturales de la población morisca de Granada. Felipe II deportó los moriscos sobrevivientes a distintas partes de la Corona de Castilla tras vencer los rebeldes, aumentando su población de 20,000 a 100,000. Known as the Alpujarra War, the bloodshed involved thousands of esclavos and sacerdote massacres in Spain.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    During Philip II's tenure, the Dutch rebelled against Spanish control in the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), which led to the establishment of the Dutch Republic. It resulted in the fall of the Spanish Empire, Portuguese independence, and the rise of the Netherlands as a significant European power, sparked by religious conflicts and Philip II's policies. One of the key players was William the Silent. The Peace of Westphalia, which put an end to the war, influenced later events in Europe.
  • 1579

    The singment of the Union of Arras

    The singment of the Union of Arras
    The Habsburg Netherlands' Artois, Hainaut, and Douai were unified under the Union of Arras, which was founded in 1579 amid the Eighty Years' War. They sought a resolute defence of the Catholic faith because they were dissatisfied with William of Orange and the Calvinist Republic of Ghent. They pursued a distinct peace with the Spanish Crown, rejecting the Union of Brussels and defending Catholic supremacy against Orange's religious peace strategy, by signing the Treaty of Arras in May 1579.
  • 1579

    The singment of the Union of Utrecht

    The singment of the Union of Utrecht
    The Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland's Old Catholic Churches are united under the Union of Utrecht, which was founded in 1889. It began as a unifying response to dissension from Vatican I. It grew over time to incorporate churches from Slovakia, Poland, and Austria. The founding documents of the Union set forth guidelines and values that promote a common identity. In regions without dioceses, delegates manage parishes, placing a focus on unity within the Union.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    This is about how England became a global superpower thanks to its naval strength, defeating the 'invincible' Spanish Armada in 1588. Philip II of Spain, mortal enemy of Elizabeth I of England, sent his huge armada of ships to invade England and bring it back to the Catholic faith.
    However, he was defeated by the small but brave English navy commanded by captains including Sir Francis Drake. Drake's victory despite all odds is often described as a moment when England stood up to Europe and won.
  • Period: to

    Baroque art

    Unlike the Renaissance the Baroque era (16th–18th century) was a vibrant cultural time It accepted imperfect effects dynamism and relativity. Culturalism and Conceptism were prominent themes in Spanish Baroque literature Baroque art had dynamic compositions as demonstrated by the works of Caravaggio and Bernini.It created tonal harmony in music and gave rise to concerto grosso and opera Historical events had an impact on Baroque, which depicted a volatile time with a variety of dramatic emotions
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    Represents a scene from Ovidio's "Metamorfosis," in which the young Apolo, enraged by a passionate love, tries to reach the enraged ninfa, but, thanks to his intervention, she turns into a tree. Headed by the bark and branches of the laurel, it is transformed into a part of nature, which will later be swift for the afflicted Apollo in the form of a laurel crown. One of Bernini's disciples, Giuliano Finelli, helped him by covering the portion of the tail.
  • Saint Peter`s square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter`s square project by Bernini
    St. Peter's Square is one of the largest and most beautiful squares in the world. It is located in Vatican City, it houses over 300,000 people. The most impressive part is its 284 columns and 88 pilasters that flank the square in a colonnade of four rows. Above the columns, there are 140 statues of saints created by the disciples of Bernini. In the centre, two fountains; one of Bernini, another by Maderno and The Obelisk, which is 25 meters in height, was carried to Rome from Egypt in 1586.
  • The Spinners by Velázquez

    The Spinners by Velázquez
    Is a complex painting that depicts women working at the Royal Tapestry Factory of Santa Isabel in Madrid. The tale holds that Pallas Athena, the patron goddess of weaving, challenged Arachne to a weaving competition when she heard the mortal woman bragging about her spinning skills. Athena executed a tapestry paying homage to the brilliant gods and goddesses of Olympus, with images of the painful tortures to which mortals are subject when they dare to defy their divine counterparts.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    The Neoclassical masterwork "Oath of the Horatii" by Jacques-Louis David, painted in 1785, depicts a Roman tradition of sacrifice. The picture, which shows three brothers from Horatii and three from Curiatii battling each other, illustrates David's blending of traditional mythology with modern politics. David served as Napoleon's court artist, and his paintings resonated because they showed people forsaking their relationships with others in order to further political goals
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    Goya painted portraits for the Spanish Royal Family while working as a court painter in Madrid. The royal family is portrayed in a troubled manner in his famous piece Charles IV of Spain and His Family, (1801) which was inspired by Velázquez's "Las Meninas." Later Black Paintings by Goya show his developing cynicism in the face of disease and unrest in the political system. Disillusioned, he relocated to France in 1824 and died there in 1828 leaving a lasting legacy in the annals of art history.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassic art

    Rising throughout Europe in the middle of the 18th century, neoclassical art favoured classical Greek and Roman forms over the luxury of baroque art. Power was emphasised in response to Baroque excess, and Enlightenment principles like reason and utility were welcomed. Blooming in France, it supplanted Rome as the centre of the arts, presenting gods and heroes in a restrained, fundamental form that communicated civic and moral instruction through simplification.