Christopher Columbus and his crew landed on a new island thinking that it was uninhabited and called it the "New World". Christopher Columbus was considered the most successfull failure for not finding the trade route to India.
Mar 1, 1493
Columbus returned to Hispaniola with 17 ships with cattle, swine, and horses. The horses reached North America several years later.
Jun 7, 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas
The Tready of Tordesillas divded the "heathen lands" of the New World between Spain and Portugal. Portugal also recieved land in Africa, Asia, and Brazil.
Jan 1, 1513
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Vasco Nunez Balboa was a Spanish Conquistador who is known as the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean. He set sailed off the coast of Panama and claimed he was king of all the lands that was washed by the sea.
Sep 20, 1519
Fredinand Magellan was a Spanish Conquistador who set sail from Spain with five ships. After sailing through harsh storms off of the tip of South America he was killed by the Phillippines in 1521.
Aug 13, 1521
The Conquering of Mexico
Hernan Cortes and his troops triuphmed over the Aztec civilization. In the same year, a smallpox epidemic spread through the Valley of Mexico decreasing the population from 20 million to 2 million.
Oct 1, 1521
Juan Ponce de Leon
Juan Ponce de Leon was another Spaniard that explored parts of North America. He discovered Florida thinking that it was an island. He searched for the mythical "fountain of youth", but was killed by an Indian arrow.
Sep 8, 1522
The Remaining Vessel
In 1521, Ferdinand Megellan was killed by the Philippines. One of his vessels made it back home and it was the first vessel to circumnavigate the globe.
May 1, 1539
Hernando de Soto
In this year Hernando de Soto and six hundred men took a gold-seeking expedition. While they were exploring the westen part of Florida, he discoverd the Mississippi and the Arkansas River.
Sep 1, 1580
Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake returned in this year from making his way around the world on his ship. When he returned he had heavy weighted Spanish booty on his ship.
Sir Walter Raleigh
After Sir Humphrey's death at sea, Sir Walter Raleigh organized an expedition. Sir Walter Raleigh was Sir Humphrey Gilbert's half - brother who landed on North Carolina's Roanoke Island.
Virginia Company of London
A joint - stock company was created called the Virginina Company of London. They receieved a charter from Kings James I for a settlement in the New World.
The Founding of Jamestown
A band of colonists found a site that was easy to defend. The site was mosquitoinfested and very unhealthy. The colonist left the site and named it Jamestown in honor of King James I.
Lord De La Warr
In 1610, Lord De La Warr was the new governor. He ordered settlers back to Jamestown and took action against the Indians. He ordered his troops to raid Indian villages, burn their houses, and torch their cornfields.
The Death of King Charles I
King Charles I was beheaded by Oliver Cromwell. He then ruled England for the next one hundred years.
Act of Toleration
In 1649, the Act of Toleration was passed and granted toleration for all Christians. This act also stated that Jews and atheists who denied the divinity of Jesus would be sentenced the death penalty.
Indian Civiliation in Virginia
Because the Indians were separated from white areas the population descresed tremendously. In 1669, an official cencus revealed that there were only about 2,000 Indians that were left in Virginia.
Savannah Indian Alliance
The Savannah Indians decided to end their alliance with the Carolinians. They decided to migrate back to Maryland and Pennsylvania.
North and South Carolina
North Carolina and South Carolina were offically separated and each of them became a royal colony. North Carolina agreed to share several distinctions with Rhode Island.
The first smallpox vaccination was administrated to a patient. Now that there was a vaccination people had less cases of the diease.
Georgia was the last of the thirteen colonies to be planted. It was planted 126 years after Virgina and 52 years after Pennsylvania.
New York Weekly Journal
Jury acquited John Zenger for seditious libel charges by the royal governor of New York. This was the victory of freedom of speech.
War of Jenkin's Ear
English parliament declares war on Spain. This war is known as the War of Jenkin's Ear. In America, hostilities break out between Florida Spaniards and Georgia and South Carolina colonists
The End of the Conojocular War
A treaty between Pennsylvania and Maryland ends the Conojocular War with settlement of a boundary dispute. They also had an exchange of prisoners.
The Great Awakening
The Great Awakenign started in 1734 by Johnathan Edwards. George Whitefield continued to spread more religous practices throughout the colonies.
The Stono Rebellion
Twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River in Charles Town. At Stono's bridge, they took guns and powder from Hutcheson's store and killed the two storekeepers they found there.
This school was founded in Elizabeth, New Jersey, then it was moved to Newark in 1747. Finally it was moved to Princeton and was named after that in 1896.
University of Pennsylvania
Ben Franklin was the founder of the Univeristy of Pennsylvania, When he created it he had programs for on practical education for commerce and public service.
Slavery in the South
Georgia recieves permisson from Parliament to revoke their prohibition on slavery. This leads to the plantation system in the South.
The Iron Act
In 1750, the Iron Act was passed by the English Parliament and this limited the growth of the iron industry in the American colonies.
The First Hospital
The first general hospital was founded and created in Philadelphia, PA.
Columbia was founded in 1754 in New York City. It was known as Kings College
French and Indian War
This war was fought in Europe, India, and North America. The English and the French battled for colonial power in North America, the Caribbean, and in India.
George Washington defeats the French and Indians on this day.
Geoirge Washington surrenders the fort after being attacked by French army men and leaves the fort with his men.
Colonial General Assembly
A new slave code was adopted when the first Colonial General Assemly met in Savannah.
Virginia House of Burgess
George Washington admitted to Virginia House of Burgess. The assembly was made up of 22 members.
First Insurance Company
The first insurance company was founded and incorporated in Philadelphia, PA.
The First Jewish Bible
The Jewish Bible was being printed in the United States. Because of this event the increase of the Jewish population increased.
The Signing of The Treaty of Paris
England and Spain both agree to sign the Treaty of Paris. One month later British Parliament signed it as well.
The Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was finally passed. The Seven Year Wars ended because of The Treaty of Paris. This stated that France had to give England all of the French territory to the east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans to them.
Prime Minister George Grenville secured this act from Parliament. This was the first law ever passed for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown.
Committee of Correspondence
The first Commitee of Correspondence met in Boston to discuss the recently passed Currency Act.
This act was created to have control over the colonial currency system. The act prohibited the issue of any new bills and the reissue of existing currency.
George Greville imposed the Stamp Act to raise revenues to support the new military force. The use of stamped paper would be taxed.
This act was when colonists had to provide food and quarters for British troops that were defending the colonists. This act expanded in 1766.
The nonimportation agreements were adopted by congress against the British. This was when they were not going to purchase a certain good from the British.
The Declaration of Rights
This was created during the Committees of Correspondence declaring that taxes imposed on British colonists were unconstitutional.
Stamp Act Repealed
Parliament was forced to repeal the Stamp Act because of demands of the colonies. They were confused of why they wouldn't pay the tax because the money was paying for the colonies' defense.
The Townshend Acts
The Townshend Acts put a tax on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea. This granted certain duties in the British colonies and plantations in America.
The Boston Massacre was when about 60 townspeople started taunting and throwing snowballs at 10 British soliders. An angry solider opened fire and killed 11 colonists and only two redcoats were found guilty of manslaughter.
Townshend Acts Repealed
The clauses of the Townshend Acts were repealed to calm outraged colonists. Even with the Townshend Acts repealed, the colonists weren't happy.
Boston Tea Party
This was when about 100 Bostinains disguised themselves as Indians and boarded a ship full of tea. They destoryed 342 boxes of tea and dumped it into the Atlantic Ocean.
First Continental Congress
The purpose of the First Continental Congress was to consider ways to readress colonial problems. Their first meeting was held in Philadelphia and 12 out of the 13 colonies sent a delagate to the meeting.
The Intolerable Acts included the Boston Port Act, The Quebec Act, and the New Quatering Act. The Boston Port Act was when they closed the harbor until damages were paid and they closed town meetings. The Quebec Act wasn't intended to punish Boston. The New Quatering Act gave local authorities the power to lodge British soliders anywhere.
The First Continental Congress created The Association. This called for a complete boycott of British goods; nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
Lexington and Concord
The British commander of Boston suspected that colonists were housing weaponry in Concord. He sent his troops through Lexington and Concord to take the stockpile. At Lexington the "Minute Men" refused to disperse. Shots were fired that killed 8 American men and other wounded. At Concord the Bristish retreated back to Boston and 70 of their men were killed.
Declaration on Taking Up of Arms
The Declaration on Taking Up of Arms was issued by the Second Continental Congrress. The document was issued to explain why the thirteen colonies had taken up arms in the American Revolutionary War.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Indepdence was adopted by the Continental Congress. This stated that the thirteen colonies were indepndent states and were no longer under the British Empire.
The Congress adopts the American flag that has 13 stars and stripes. The white signifies purity and innocence, red signifies hardiness & valour, and blue signifies vigilance, perseverance & justice.
Articles of Confederation
This document was an agreement among the 13 states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation. This served as their first constitution.
Treaty of Paris
The British formally recognized the independence of the United States. They granted boundariesthat stretched from the Mississippi to the west and to the Great Lakes to the north.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
The pro-British Iroquois were forced to sign this and the most of the Indians ceded their land. This was the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation.
Land Ordinance of 1785
The Land Ordinance provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off national debt.
An uprising flared up in western Massachusetts. Backcountry farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers.
This law annouces the ways of how the land of the west could be come states. The territory had to be at least sixty thousand and would have all the privileges of the thirteen states.
The First Coin Authorized by Congress
This coin was known as the Fugio cent. It was made by a private company and remained in circulation the 1850s.
Congress summoned the states to Philadelphia to bolster the entire Articles of Confederation. Every state sent a representative except for Rhode Island.
The First Tariff Law
The first tariff law imposed a low tariff to about 8 percent on the vaule of imports and was passed by the first Congress before Hamilton was sworn in. Raising revenue was the main goal of this law.
Judiciary Act of 1789
This law organized the Supreme Court with a chief justice, five associates, federal and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general.
First Bank of the United States
Alexander Hamilton had the idea of having a national bank for the United States. He thought that the federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation. The bank would also print paper money to provide a sound and stable national currency. He fought hard for this bank against Jefferson and won it in 1791.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
This offcially proclaimed America's neutrality and warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps. (French & American)
John Jay was sent to London to avert war. Because Hamilton sent details of America's bargaining startegy to the British, he won very few concessions. Britain consented to pay damages for recent seizures of American ships and promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil.
The Whiskey Rebellion
An uprising flared up in southwestern Pennsylvania that challenged the new national government. President George Washington summoned the militia of several states to stop the uprising.
Treaty of Grenville
The Indian confedercy gave up vast tracts of the Old Northwest in exchange the Indians the got $20,000 and the right hunrt the lands they had ceded.
This was a deal made between Spain and America. This treaty granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River, the terroirty of Florida, and gave western farmers the right to use New Orleans as a port for their goods.
Election of 1800
The election of 1800 was when Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for president. Burr was Jefferson's running mate so the Congress had to decide who was president. In the end Jefferson was the president and Burr was the vice president.
Naturalization Law of 1802
By this time, the Alien and Sedition Acts were expired but there were people still being punished. Jefferson pardoned those who were in jail and remitted mines. This law reduced the requirement of residence from fourteen years to five.
Battle of Austerlitz
This was a battle fought between France and Britatin. France defeated British, Austrian, and other Russian armies. France gained land superiority in Europe.
Embargo Act of 1807
Congress passed this law to forbid the export of all goods from the U.S. whether in American or foreign ships. They thought that if this would work this would make America neutral and will not have to deal with conflict.
This reopened trade with all the world except France and Britain. If either of them repealed its commerical restrictions, then America would trrade freely with them and embarbo the other.
Treaty of Ghent
This treaty was signed to end the War of 1812. This released all prisoners and restored all war lands and boats.
Second Bank of the United States
The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 and went into affect in 1817. This bank was headquartered at Philadelphia.
Panic of 1819
This was the first major finacial crisis in the United States and this occured during "The Era of Good Feeling."
This compromise prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 30' parallel except within the boundaries of the state of Missouri.
Land Act of 1820
This law eliminated the purchase of public land in the UNited States on credit. Land that was purchased had to be 160 to 80 acres.
The Monroe Doctorine was introduced in the United States and it stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
This treaty was signed in St. Petersburg and had six different parrts to it. This gave the Russians the Pacific Northwest coast of North America.
The Erie Canal was the first transportation system between New York City and the Great Lakes.
Tariff of Abominations
The Tariff of 1828 was a proctective tariff that protected industry in the north. It was labeled the "Tariff of Abominations" because of the effects it had on the south.
Election of 1828
Jackson and his running mate John Calhoun ran against John Quincy Adams and his running mate Richard Rush. Andrew Jackson won the election in 1828.
Indian Removal Act
Congress passed this law, providing for the transplanting of all Indian tribes then resident east of the Mississippi.
Tariff of 1832
This tariff was also a protective tariff. The purpose of this tariff was to act as a remedy of the Tariff of 1828.
Delegates held a meeting concerning the Nullies and Unionists and thought it would be good for South Carolina to leave the Union. Jackson threatened to invade the state and have the nullifers hung.
The Compromise Tariff was a resolution to the nullification crisis. It reduced the rates of most of the Tariff of 1828 and 1832.
Santa Anna Captured
The Texans wiped out the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. He signed a treaty that recognized the Rio Grande as the southwestern border of Texas.
This was an executive order issued by Andrew Jackson. It required payments to be made in gold or silver.
Battle of The Alamo
Santa Anna trapped 200 Texans at the fort of the Alamo in San Antonio. After 13 days of fighting Santa Anna wiped them out.
Panic of 1837
This was another financial crisis in the United States but this was caused by overspeculation. Everyone started to pay the banks with gold and silver and there was a deflation drawback.
Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears was the name given to the relocation and movement of Native Americans nations from southern parts of the United States.
Independent Treasury Act
This was a system for the retaining of government funds in the United States Treasury.
The South Secedes
South Carolina was the first state to leave the Union. The main reasons that they seceded from the north was because of state's rights and the issue of slavery.
This is where the first shots were fired at and when the Civil War begun.
1st Battle of Bull Run
This was the first major battle of thje Civil War. The Confederacy defeated the Union and made the south overconfident.
Acquisition of New Orleans
David G. Farragut joined the Northern army to strike New Orleans. If the Union was able to capture New Orleans they would be able to control the Mississippi River.
Battle of Shiloh
General Ulysses S. Grant hoped to capture the junction of the main Confederate railroads in the Mississippi Valley.
General Gorge McClellan contiued to push his army toward Richmond, Virginia. He deciced to take a water way and attack. In result, Yorktown fell and Lincoln diverted McClellan's reinforcements.
Merrimack vs, Monitor
The Merrimack was a wooden ship with iron railroad ties and renamed it Virginia and could easily destroy wooden ships. The Monitor was a small wooden ship. Both ships encountered each other and fought to a stand still.
Battle of Antietam
General Robert E. Lee wanted to strike Maryland hoping they would join the south. McClellan was restored to command and found a copy of Lee's battle plans. McClellan defeated Lee and declined to pursue him.
This declared free slaves in the Confederate States still in the rebellion. This was not a legislation it was not passed thorugh Congress, it was only issued by the president.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside. Burnsides troops were defeated by the Confederacy.
The Man Without A Country
This novel was publish in early 1863. It was about a young army officer who was found guilty of participation in the Aaron Burr conspiracy.
Battle of Chancellorsville
General Lee divided his army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flanks. The strategy worked, but Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men.
Residents of the western part of Virginia did not want to leave the Union. West Virginia was then admitted as a new state.
Battle of Gettysburg
Because Lee defeated the Union at Chancellorsville, he decided to invade Pennslyvainia. This battle lasted for three days until General George Pickett broke back from the Confederate attack.
Battle of Chattanooga
Union foreces had driven Confederates from Chickamauga, Tenesse to Chattanooga, North Carolina.
The Union Party
Duing the election of 1864, the war democrats and the republicans formed a new party called the Union party.
This requried that 50% of a state's voters take the oath of allegiance. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill.
Election of 1864
Lincoln won this election against Andrew Johnson from the war demorcrat party and George McClellan from the peace democrats.
Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomatox Courthouse, Virginia. Lee surrendered to Grant, ending the Civil War.