FreudPychoanalytic or psychodynamic
Personality formed via childhood experiences
Refer to ID, EGO and SUPEREGO (in conflict with each other) which progress during 5 stages of human development
AdlerFounder of individual psychology, refer to unity and coherence. People are unique and therefore no single theory can describe their development. Belonging and positive social environments are important.
JungPychoanalytic theory/Neo-analytic theorist
Refer to CONSCIOUS & PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS, COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS as well as the psyche, the self & individuation.
Focus on masculine, feminine, spiritual, animalistic.
Believed that people were able to act as their own therapists, emphasizing the personal role each person has in their own mental health.
Core elements: basic conflict, basic evil, basic anxiety, neurosis, self-realisation, despised vs ideal self, pride and glory
External factors, environment and parents impact on childhood development. Developed eight interrelated stages of development through which a person must grow.
Focus on individual’s conscious experience in reality because it exists independent from observer.
Behaviour is actually formed and maintained through the environment. Coined concepts related to reinforcement and types thereof. Used animals in experiments.
Emphasis on role and experience of meaning.
Logo therapy: meaning and search for meaning.
Found that meaning of life can be experienced in spite of high-stress of concentration camps and even apartheid.
Refers to need driven motivational factors and self fulfilment factors. Established a hierarchy of basic needs
Positive vs Negative expectations
Locus of control
BeckCognitive Behaviour Theorist
Father of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Moved away from psycho analysis, refer to negative interpretations people made, focus on modifying thoughts, changed distorted thinking and thus change behaviour.
Motivation linked to attention and memory
Observation, imitation and modelling are important aspects in learning