chronological positioning of theories

  • Freud

    Pychoanalytic or psychodynamic
    Personality formed via childhood experiences
    Refer to ID, EGO and SUPEREGO (in conflict with each other) which progress during 5 stages of human development
  • Adler

    Founder of individual psychology, refer to unity and coherence. People are unique and therefore no single theory can describe their development. Belonging and positive social environments are important.
  • Jung

    Pychoanalytic theory/Neo-analytic theorist
    Refer to CONSCIOUS & PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS, COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS as well as the psyche, the self & individuation.
    Focus on masculine, feminine, spiritual, animalistic.
  • Horney

    Socially-Oriented Psychoanalist
    Believed that people were able to act as their own therapists, emphasizing the personal role each person has in their own mental health.
    Core elements: basic conflict, basic evil, basic anxiety, neurosis, self-realisation, despised vs ideal self, pride and glory
  • Erikson

    Psycho-social theorist
    External factors, environment and parents impact on childhood development. Developed eight interrelated stages of development through which a person must grow.
  • Rogers

    Existential/Phenomenological theorist
    Focus on individual’s conscious experience in reality because it exists independent from observer.
    Person-centered therapy
  • Skinner

    Behaviour is actually formed and maintained through the environment. Coined concepts related to reinforcement and types thereof. Used animals in experiments.
  • Frankl

    Existential/Phenomenological theorist
    Emphasis on role and experience of meaning.
    Logo therapy: meaning and search for meaning.
    Found that meaning of life can be experienced in spite of high-stress of concentration camps and even apartheid.
  • Maslow

    Refers to need driven motivational factors and self fulfilment factors. Established a hierarchy of basic needs
  • Rotter

    Social Learning
    Positive vs Negative expectations
    Locus of control
  • Beck

    Cognitive Behaviour Theorist
    Father of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
    Moved away from psycho analysis, refer to negative interpretations people made, focus on modifying thoughts, changed distorted thinking and thus change behaviour.
  • Bandura

    Social Learning
    Motivation linked to attention and memory
    Observation, imitation and modelling are important aspects in learning