Chapter 4 Concepts

  • Period: to

    The Road to Revolution

  • Period of Benign Neglect

    a. (1607-1763)
    Robert Walpole-refrained from strict enforcemt of Nav Acts
    weak admin of colonies + greedy, unintelligient character of royal officials in amer. = weaken ENG control on colonies b. depended heavily on support of merchants+landholders
    ^needed good relations-leniency c.(1750's) resistance to authority centered on colonial legislature
    leverage over Brit gov (Privy Council) w/ control of colonial budget
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    a. rules
    1) trade carried only thru English/colonial ships
    2) all goods to colony must pass thru ENG ports
    3) goods ex: tobacco exported to ENG only b. mercantilism- colonie's purpose to enrich parent country c. impact
    +.new eng shipbuilding increased
    +cheasapeake tobacco monopoly in ENG
    +eng mil. forces protect colonies from SPA & FRE -.manufacturing limited
    -.chesapeake farmers-lower prices for crops
    -.high prices for ENG manufactured goods
    -.resentment building up w/in colonies
  • French and Indian War (cont.)

    French and Indian War (cont.)
    d.Relationship w/ Natives
    Fra-TOLERANT; no enforcemt of social norms or religion
    Jesuits converted thousands w/o challenging ^
    e. Beginning of war
    1)increased tension when Iroquois granted land to Eng-> Fre build forts in Ohio Valley
    2)VA gov sent G.Washington w/ small militia to impede Fre and gain control of Ohio Valley
    f. Effects
    enlarge Bri debt
    Bri bitter about:
    -colonist not contrinuting $$ to war
    -militia inadequate
    ->needed to control colonist more
  • French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

    French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
    a.(1754-63) Bri vs. Fra for dominance in world trade & naval power
    unstable balance of power among Bri, Fre, and Iroquois
    b.Louis XIV-expansion of Fre presence in Amer (late 17th cent)
    established trading posts, forts, missions to secure land
    c.confirmed ENG commercial supremacy and cemented control of settlemts in N.Amer
    brought colonies closer to Bri authority
    d.Relationship w/ Natives
    needed for mil alliance
    Bri-adv commerce;provide Indians w/ better/more goods
  • Albany Plan

    Albany Plan
    a. Albany, NY
    Benjamin Franklin
    +provided intercolonial gov
    +system for recruiting troops
    +collecting taxes from colonies to provide common defense
    b. recognize need for coordinating colonial defense
    c.never took effect-colonies unable to co-op
    set precedent for revolution in 1770's
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac's Rebellion
    a. Great Lakes Region (Michigan, New York)
    Chief Pontiac and Ottawa Indians rebel against the British
    destroyed forts and settlemts
    b. angry by growing westward mvmt of Brit
    c. Indian's alliance weakened-Bri defeat them
  • George Grenville: Prime Minister of King George III

    George Grenville: Prime Minister of King George III
    a. 1763-65
    believed in strict control of colonies
    b. Policies
    Stamp Act
    Proclamation of 1763
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    a. Fre ceded territories to Bri
    colonies in India
    Canada and all Fre territories east of Miss
    except New Orleans
    b. basically gave all title of mainland N.Amer
    c. Iroquois Confederacy crumbled even though sided w/ Bri
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    a.Bri act that prohibited colonist to settle west of Applachian Mts.
    b.prevent hostilities b/w colonist and Indians
    c. Colonists reacted w/ anger and defiance-> hoped to reaped rewards of F&I War
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    a.placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries
    enforcemt of Nav Acts to stop smuggling
    b. raise $$ for crown
  • Paxton Boys & Rebellion

    Paxton Boys & Rebellion
    a. Scots-Irish farmers - upset by disputes over western land
    killed 20 peaceful Indians
    marched in Philadelphia when Quaker gov try to punish them
    b. protesting Quaker's tolerance of Indians
    Ben Franklin stopped it
    c.Feeling of racial hatred/resentment arise;
    first conflict of western expansion
  • Stamp Act- "No Taxation w/o Representation"

    Stamp Act- "No Taxation w/o Representation"
    a. issued by Lord Grenville
    1st direct tax on colonist, not just merchants
    required stamps be placed on printed paper:legal doc, newspapers, ads
    b.Patrick Henry-stood up in House of Burgesses to demand king to recog. rights of citizens
    Stamp Act Congress- Rep from 9 colonies met in NY to resolve that elected rep. had legal authority to approve taxes
    Sons of Liberty-secret org to intimiafate tax agents=> tar and feathered
    Boycotts-most effective;ppl not buy anything w/ Bri origin
    sharp drop trade
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    a. gave Parly right to tax & make laws for colony
    b. repealed Stamp Act
    c. renewed conflict b/w colonist & Bri gov
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    a.tax on tea, glass, & paper
    paid for crown officials-made independent of colonial assemblies
    "writ of assisstance"-liscense to search anywhere for smuggled goods
    James Otis, Samuel Adams, John Dickinson wrote letters against taxation w/o rep
    sent letters around colonies- boycott of Brit goods
    c.Repeal-b/c of trade damage & generated small amount of revenue
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    a.Boston ppl resented British troops quartering in homes
    crowd harrassed guards
    guards killed 5 ppl (include AFR Amer)
    found guilty
    b. Effect. Samuel Adams called it "massacre"
    used to inflame anti-Brit sentiment
  • Regulator Movement Revolts

    Regulator Movement Revolts
    a. small scale civil war
    stem from Carolinas farmers grievance w/ high taxes
    began resisting tax collections by force
    b.underrep in colonial assemblies
    c.Gov William Trevor raised army to suppress them
  • Samuel Adams

    Samuel Adams
    a. most effective radical in spreading anti-Bri sentiment
    voice expressing outrage at Bri oppression
    b. created "committee of correspondence"-publicized grievances against Eng
    kept spirit of dissent alive thru 1770's

    a.gov gave East India Co. (failing) right to export merch directly to colonies w/o paying taxes that reg merchants had to pay
    1.enraged influential merchants fearing replancemt & bankruptcy
    2.renew "taxation w/o rep"
    c.boycott tea in large pop
    Boston Tea Party- men dressed as Mohawks boarded ships in threw tea into harbor
    d.Women: Daughters of Liberty
    -leaders in boybott effort
    -active in anti-brit riots
  • Intolerable (Coercive) Acts

    Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
    a.punishment for Mass for not paying reparations of Boston TeaParty
    -closed Boston port
    -reduce powers of self-gov
    -royal officials can be tried in colonies/eng
    -quarter troops
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    1.rejected plan for colonial union under Bri authority
    2.stated grievances-demand for repeal of oppresive legislation
    3.approve resolutions-forming military
    4.agreed to stop trade w/ Brit by not im(ex)porting,consuming Bri goods
    5.meet again next Spring
    b. declare "economic war"
    c. Stupid Parliamt does not remove troops/coercion acts
    demands colonies tax ppl on Parli demand
  • Lexington & Concord "first shots heard round the world"

    a.General Gage-want to seize illegal supplies w/o Bloodshed
    patriots watching Brit closely-Paul Revere/William Dawes warn them
    several minutemen awaited Bri. troops
    shots fired
  • Philosophy of Revolt

    Philosophy of Revolt
    -few Amer willing for complete independence from Eng
    a.Ideas supporting Rev
    -religious sources
    -pol exp. of colonies
    -Scots:view Bri as "tyrannical"
    -country Whigs: existing sys corrupt/oppressive
    -John Locke: gov necessary to protect ppl from innate evil-replace gov is gov fails
    -"virtual rep" Parliament members rep interest of nation/empire even for Ireland/Amer. which had no rep.
    -"actual rep" Amer. wanted elected rep from Amer in Parli
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    -statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, -announced 13 colonies independent of Brit
    -John Adams-leader
    -Thomas Jefferson-writer
    --incorp Locke’s ideas regarding:
    --limited, democratic government;
    --the right to rebel against an inept government;
    --the opportunity to pursue the natural rights enjoyed by all mankind;
  • Thomas Paine- Common sense

    Thomas Paine- Common sense
    -Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy
    -inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain