Map of colonial north america 1763

Chapter 4: The Road to Revolution

  • Period: to

    Road to Revolution

  • Albany Plan

    Albany Plan
    • delegation to defend against Natives
    • Parliament place larger, "helicopter" gov.
    • need colonies to unite
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    • 1702., 1729, 1754
    • restricted colonial manufactures
    • passed to strengthen mercantilist program - colonies are only supposed to benefit mother country
  • Period of Benign Neglect

    Period of Benign Neglect
    a) after Glorious Revolution, weakened monarch; - Robert Walpole - lax restrictions = stimulate commerce
    b) Parliament dependent on English merchants - lax in imperial organization; lack of colonial office - officials accepted bribes to waive restrictions
    c) 1750s - American colonies gained more sovereignity
    1763 - England in debt due to war; interference with colonies
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    a) 1754-1763; French & Indian allies (Iroquois Confederacy) vs British
    b) dominance in world trade; tensions due to land expansion; conflict over Ohio R. valley; ascension of opposed rulers; Iroquois give trading concessions to British - military action from French; Fort Necessity; start of 7 Years War in Europe
    c) English imposed dominance on colonists = conflict; English commercial dominance
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    a) acccession of Geroge III, 1763
    b) French ceded vast amount of land (West Indian islands, Indian colonies, Canada, etc...)
    c) expanded English territorial claims; French lost title to mainland N. America; increased British debt/ British resent towards Americans; colonists = England have no right to interfere; natives lost land and influence
  • Paxton Boys & their Rebellion

    Paxton Boys & their Rebellion
    • 1763, western Pennsylvania - backcountry settlers
    • demanded relief from colonial taxes
    • government gave into demands in order to avoid bloodshed
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    • Proclamation Act of 1763 - limit colonization to east of Appalachians - favorable for British to regulate expansion/ native relations
    • aggravated natives - pushed farther into territory
  • Prime Minister: George Grenville

    Prime Minister: George Grenville
    • 1763 through 1765, appointed by new king George III
    • strict in colonical policies - wanted to force taxes
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    • 1764, due to illegal trade with West Indies
    • raised duty on sugar and lowered them on molasses
    • damaged colonial trade
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    a) 1765, tax on all printed documents in colonies (newspapers, almanacs, etc...)
    b) Patrick Henry - taxed only with representation = Virgina Resolves
    - Stamp Act Congress (1765), petition King & parliament
    - Sons of Liberty (Samuel Adams), terrorized stamp agents - riots in Boston = ceased stamp sales
    c) repealed due to economic pressure from boycotted goods, 1766; Declatory Act - Parliament power over colonies in all cases
  • Mutiny or Quartering Act

    Mutiny or Quartering Act
    • Mutiny Act of 1765 - forced to quarter British soldiers
    • increased soldiers in America to defend borders with natives
    • had to provide quarters and supplies to troops
    • Mass. and NY Assembly refused to supply troops
  • Townshend Duties

    Townshend Duties
    • opposition of English landlords - feared increased taxes on themselves
    • Charles Townshend
    • disbanded NY assembly until agreed to Quartering Act and more taxes on English goods (lead, paper, paint, and tea)
    • resentment from all colonies
    • nonimportation agreement started in NY and Philadelphia - boycotted British goods
    • repealed all except for tea tax on March 1770
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    • colonial harassment of customs commisioners = "redcoats" placed in Boston; competed with local workers for jobs
    • colonists began pelting snowballs/ rocks at British soldiers
    • Captain Thomas Preston - attempted to protect building = scuffling; shots fired from British side
    • 5 dead, including Crispus Attucks, a mulatto sailor
  • Philosophy of Revolt

    Philosophy of Revolt
    • not all wanted complete independence
    • viewed/ realized British and American differences in government -John Locke - existing British system = "corrupt and oppressive"; people = evil, needed government guidance; corrupted people in government, so gov. needed a "check" system
    • colonies = "common wealth" joined by loyalty to king
  • Regulator Movement Revolts

    Regulator Movement Revolts
    • civial war in N. Carolina
    • farmers of Carolina upcountry who organized resistence against local sheriffs who collected high taxes
    • population = underrepresented
    • Battle of Alamance, 2000 Regulators killed by militiamen
  • Samuel Adams & Creation of C&C

    Samuel Adams & Creation of C&C
    • Samuel Adams, born in 1722
    • outspoken about British oppression of American colonists
    • "committee of correspondence" - publicize grievances against England
  • Tea Act; Boston Tea Party

    Tea Act; Boston Tea Party
    • 1773, British East India Company
    • tea monopoly, direct sale to colonies without normal tea tax = undersell American merchants, undermine American tea trade
    • company exemption from longstanding tea tax = enragement from colonists
    • women wrote satirical literary pieces on freedom; mass boycott of tea
    • 150 men disguised as Mohawks broke open trunks of tea and dumped it into the harbor
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    • in response to Mass. refusal to compensate for tea destroyed
    • closed port of Boston
    • reduced self government of colony (Mass.)
    • permited royal officers to be tried in other colonies/ England when accused of crimes
    • quartering of troops in barns, and empty homes
    • Quebec Act, extended Quebec territory - for French speaking, Roman Catholics in Canada - act of tolerance = enraged American colonists more
    • Edenton Proclamation - Oct. 1774 - anti British resolutions
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    • Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia - endorsed statement of grievances
    • recommended military preparation for defense against British troops
    • nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption to stop trade with British
  • Thomas Paine

    Thomas Paine
    • wrote Common Sense, popular pamphlet
    • openly wrote about American independence, advocated freedom from British
  • Lexington

    • General Gage to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock
    • Concord, 18 miles from Boston - 1,000 British soldiers
    • William Dawes and Paul Revere road out to warn villages and farms of British approach
    • "shot heard around the world"
  • Concord

    • attempted to destory rebel powder supply
    • 8 killed and 10 wounded on rebel side
    • British lost more than three times as many soldiers as did the colonists
    • distorted truth = rallying of thousands of colonists