Chapter 22

  • 300 BCE

    Aristotle explained the geocentric theory.

    Aristotle explained the geocentric theory.
  • 100

    Ptolemy supported the geocentric theory.

    Ptolemy supported the geocentric theory.
  • 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus reasoned the heliocentric theory.

    Nicolaus Copernicus reasoned the heliocentric theory.
  • 1543

    Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body.

    Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body.
  • Zacharias Janssen invented the microscope.

    Zacharias Janssen invented the microscope.
  • The Baroque period began in art, music, and literature.

    The Baroque period began in art, music, and literature.
  • Galileo developed the law of the pendulum.

    Galileo developed the law of the pendulum.
  • Johannes Kepler published the first two laws of planetary motion.

    Johannes Kepler published the first two laws of planetary motion.
  • Francis Bacon published Novum Organum which encouraged the experimental method.

    Francis Bacon published Novum Organum which encouraged the experimental method.
  • William Harvey showed that the heart acted as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body.

    William Harvey showed that the heart acted as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body.
  • Galileo was put under house arrest by the Inquisition for supporting Copernicus's theory.

    Galileo was put under house arrest by the Inquisition for supporting Copernicus's theory.
  • Rene Descartes published Discourse on Method which set forth reasoning.

    Rene Descartes published Discourse on Method which set forth reasoning.
  • Evangelista Torricelli developed the first mercury barometer.

    Evangelista Torricelli developed the first mercury barometer.
  • Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan.

    Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan.
  • Robert Boyle created Boyle's law.

    Robert Boyle created Boyle's law.
  • Isaac Newton published his laws of gravity.

    Isaac Newton published his laws of gravity.
  • John Locke explained his theory of "natural rights".

    John Locke explained his theory of "natural rights".
  • Mary Astell wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies.

    Mary Astell wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw red blood cells for the first time.

    Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw red blood cells for the first time.
  • Francois-Marie Arouet changes his name and champions religious freedoms.

    Francois-Marie Arouet changes his name and champions religious freedoms.
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit made the first thermometer.

    Gabriel Fahrenheit made the first thermometer.
  • The enlightened despot, Frederick II, began his rule of Prussia.

    The enlightened despot, Frederick II, began his rule of Prussia.
  • Anders Celsius created a scale for the mercury thermometer.

    Anders Celsius created a scale for the mercury thermometer.
  • Emilie du Chatalet translated Newton's work from Latin to French.

    Emilie du Chatalet translated Newton's work from Latin to French.
  • Montesquieu published On the Spirit of Laws.

    Montesquieu published On the Spirit of Laws.
  • Marie-Therese Geoffrin held her first salon of philosophes.

    Marie-Therese Geoffrin held her first salon of philosophes.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract.

    Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract.
  • The enlightened despot, Catherine the Great, began her rule of Russia.

    The enlightened despot, Catherine the Great, began her rule of Russia.
  • Cesare Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishments.

    Cesare Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishments.
  • Denis Diderot published the first volume of the Encyclopedia.

    Denis Diderot published the first volume of the Encyclopedia.
  • Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen.

    Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen.
  • The classical Period began in art, music, and architecture.

    The classical Period began in art, music, and architecture.
  • Antoine Lavoisier discovered and named gas oxygen.

    Antoine Lavoisier discovered and named gas oxygen.
  • The enlightened despot, Joseph II, began his rule of Austria.

    The enlightened despot, Joseph II, began his rule of Austria.
  • The U.S. enacted the Constitution - establishing a federal system, separation of powers, checks and balances.

    The U.S. enacted the Constitution - establishing a federal system, separation of powers, checks and balances.
  • The U.S. Congress added the Bill of Rights.

    The U.S. Congress added the Bill of Rights.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

    Mary Wollstonecraft wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
  • Edward Jenner introduced a vaccine to prevent small pox.

    Edward Jenner introduced a vaccine to prevent small pox.
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.

    Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.