Change of Culture at Hobart and William Smith Colleges (1965-1972)

Timeline created by DH2019
In History
  • Introduction:

    Introduction:
    Here you will find a Digital Humanities timeline observing parallels between historically relevant national events and their echo on private liberal arts institutions, with Hobart and William Smith Colleges as a case study.
  • How we came to research this topic:

    How we came to research this topic:
    Together we researched major events between the dates of 1965 -1972 to then search for keywords within our colleges archives, specifically within the student run news press, The Herald. What events inspired activism among the students, staff, and faculty alike. The following is a guide to navigating our timeline. The "US:" will introduce topics and events related to national news and culture shifts. For campus specific news, activism, and events, the "HWS:" will be used in the title.
  • HWS: Students Want Freedom

    HWS: Students Want Freedom
    Article published in the Hobart Herald on this day explains that students were demanding more social freedom on campus. Students advocated for women and alcohol to be allowed in dorm rooms and fraternities at night. The article says they wanted these restrictions on campus, especially in the dorm rooms, to be "relaxed and liberalized."
  • US: Death of Malcolm X

    US: Death of Malcolm X
    Malcom X, a human rights activist for the civil rights movement, is shot at a rally in Harlem.
  • US: MLK March to Alabama

    US: MLK March to Alabama
    Martin Luther King Jr. leads 25,000 people to Montgomery Alabama to protest for voting rights for African Americans.
  • US: First SDS Protest

    US: First SDS Protest
    The first student democratic society protest against the Vietnam War in Washington, D.C.
  • HWS: Dr. John Franklin at HWS

    HWS: Dr. John Franklin at HWS
    Dr. John Hope Franklin comes to Albright Auditorium to speak about the Civil Rights Movement. The name of the talk was, “The Civil Rights Revolution: It’s Historical Setting.” Dr. John Hope Franklin is the author of two books on the life of African Americans.
  • US: Satisfaction by the Rolling Stones

    US: Satisfaction by the Rolling Stones
    The Rolling Stones release Satisfaction.
  • US: American Soldiers Arrive in Vietnam

    US: American Soldiers Arrive in Vietnam
    In the beginning of 1965, America sent its first troops into Vietnam. At the end of the year there was a total of 190,000 American soldiers.
  • US: Cosmo Gets New Editor

    US: Cosmo Gets New Editor
    Helen Gurley Brown, author of the book, Sex and the Single Girl, takes over Cosmopolitan magazine. Her first running of the magazine featured an article on the birth control pill. Her goal was to change Cosmo into a magazine that encouraged women to enjoy sex.
  • US: Health Warnings on Cigarettes

    US: Health Warnings on Cigarettes
    President Johnson signs bill for cigarette companies to put health warnings on the box.
  • US: Voting Rights Act

    US: Voting Rights Act
    Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act, to try and eliminate discriminatory voting restrictions.
  • US: First Acid Rock Concert

    US: First Acid Rock Concert
    The first acid rock concert, in the world, is held at Longshoreman's Hall in California.
  • HWS:Article Against Protests

    HWS:Article Against Protests
    Campus Forum on Vietnam “Anti-War Protests are Irresponsible and Harmful” is published in the Hobart Herald. Author argues that the protests on college campuses are not the way "to be heard." His main argument was that violent protests are entirely the wrong way to protest against the Vietnam War, as it will only provoke and create further disturbances to the campus.
  • US: Birth Control Approved

    US: Birth Control Approved
    The Food and Drug Administration declares that the birth control pill for women is safe for humans.
  • HWS: Students and Drugs

    HWS: Students and Drugs
    “Students and Drugs”: article comes out in the herald to address students new indulgence in drugs. The article explains that this drug use is not “delinquency” or “rebellious.” But is actually the result of students trying to make sense of the word around them, in particular the Vietnam War, and mainly the lack of true education and information they are getting from college courses.
  • HWS: Article on Voting Rights

    HWS: Article on Voting Rights
    “Intimidation Help Undermine 1965 Voting Rights Act”: Professor of the colleges speaks before the NSM on the Voting Rights Act. Professor Manwaring felt that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 may help but civil rights issues are a “endless circular chain of problems and considerations which are very difficult to break.”
  • US: First Memorial Day

    US: First Memorial Day
    President Johnson decides the first memorial day for the United States will be held in Waterloo.
  • US: March Against Fear

    US: March Against Fear
    James Meredith leads the "March Against Fear" from Memphis, Tenn., to Jackson, Miss., to influence African Americans to vote. Meredith is shot during the march. Everyone continues the march, calling in other leaders, such as King, to show their strength and unity for civil rights.
  • US: The Beatles' New Album

    US: The Beatles' New Album
    The Beatles' new album, Revolver is released. The album goes number one, and stays there for almost two months. The Beatles at this time were involved in the evolution of pop music into an art form and the introduction of a sub culture that opposed mainstream social movements.
  • HWS: B.C. Pill on Campus

    HWS: B.C. Pill on Campus
    Hobart calls for a committee to address and give information on the birth control pill. Mr. Black, a member of the faculty of HWS at the time said it would be a necessity for the Hobart campus to distribute the pill and literature on the pill because “they already have several pregnant girls in the freshman class.”
  • US: State of the Union Address

    US: State of the Union Address
    State of the Union Address: Lyndon B. Johnson (January 10, 1967) “So together we have tried to meet the needs of our people. And, we have succeeded in creating a better life for the many as well as the few. Now we must answer whether our gains shall be the foundations of further progress, or whether they shall be only monuments to what might have been—abandoned now by a people who lacked the will to see their great work through.”
  • US: International Model Twiggy

    US: International Model Twiggy
    In England a new type of model became a fashion sensation by the name of Twiggy and mini skirts continued to get shorter and even more popular with a short lived fashion being paper clothing. This shows a more progressive view on women's clothing.
  • HWS: Black Power Movement Reflections

    HWS: Black Power Movement Reflections
    Here is an article in response to the series of Black Power movements on campus and internationally. This show an interest and active inquiry on the activism efforts and their forementioned results.
  • HWS: Students at Cornell conference Vietnam

    HWS: Students at Cornell conference Vietnam
    This show that Hobart and William Smith students go to local conferences with other colleges and universities in collaboration. The articles ments how eight students went to this conference to help create a solution to the overseas presence in Vietnam.
  • HWS: Fasting as a form of resistance to Vietnam

    HWS: Fasting as a form of resistance to Vietnam
    This article is a look into passive resistance through the form of organized fasting among the student body here at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in 1967. This shows a clear connection to the national and local social awareness that was displayed in coordination with the “National Mass Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam” so that students could join in the movement.
  • US: Summer of Love

    US: Summer of Love
    This year was also coined the summer of love when young teenagers got friendly and smoked pot and grooved to the music of "The Grateful Dead. Jefferson Airplane and The Byrds". This is a very significant indicator of the times in 1967 because it was very iconic time in history the acted as a unifier for many people and generations to come.
  • US: Detroit Riots

    US: Detroit Riots
    Once again in the summer cities throughout America exploded in rioting and looting the worst being in Detroit on July 23rd where 7000 national Guard were bought in to restore law and order on the streets.”
  • US: Jimi Hendrix Culture Movement

    US: Jimi Hendrix Culture Movement
    There were a series of artistic protests in the national media that possibly influenced social thought of the times. Specifically the introduction of artists like Jimi Hindrix: “known for an innovative and extremely influential guitar style that involved the explosive, yet often sensitively nuanced, use of feedback, distortion, and other electronically manipulated sound effects.”
  • US: Newspaper and magazine discrimination

    US:  Newspaper and magazine discrimination
    During the year of 1968, magazines and newspapers were no longer allowed to put in job application publications due to gender. This was put in place due to the title VII or the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • US: Walter Cronkite visits Vietnam

    US: Walter Cronkite visits Vietnam
    Walter Cronkite, arguably one of the most famous news reporters in history, reports on the war in Vietnam. Cronkite states that he believes that there is no way of winning in sight and that “the bloody experience in Vietnam is going to end in a stalemate.”
  • US: Orangeburg Massacre

    US: Orangeburg Massacre
    The Orangeburg Massacre occurred four years after the Civil Rights act of 1964 had been put into existence ending legal segregation in the south. However, some establishments such as the All Star Triangle bowling alley in Orangeburg South Carolina did not adhere to these new laws. This striked a peaceful protest involving over two hundred African American protesters. The protests turned violent as highway patrol men opened fire on the protesters, killing three and wounding over twenty-five.
  • US: JFK Assassination

    US: JFK Assassination
    On April 4th 1968 on a balcony in Memphis Tennessee Martin Luther King, the face of the Civil Rights Movement was shot and killed. This death of an American hero sent a ripple effect through the entire country. King had a following of millions and his death shocked the country and the world.
  • HWS: March in tribute to King

    HWS: March in tribute to King
    This article talks about a collective peace walk through the city of Geneva. The article discussed how, “Geneva community, white and black, marched arm in arm.”
  • HWS: President Johnson and Vietnam

    HWS: President Johnson and Vietnam
    This article discusses the viewpoint of Congressmen Frelinghuysen as he demonstrates that he believed that president Johnson did a poor job as a leader. Frelinghuysen specifically points to the war in Vietnam and how the United States had over committed themselves.
  • US: Columbia Strike

    US: Columbia Strike
    Students had discovered the schools support and involvement in the War in Vietnam. The students stayed away from the classrooms and picketed the buildings. This strike sparked mass student revolts in regards to race, sex, and culture.
  • HWS: College living desires home rule

    HWS: College living desires home rule
    This article discusses the ability for certain dorms and fraternity houses to enact parietal rules. Parietal rules allow students the ability to be able to visit dorms of the opposite sex. In this article, a fraternity president quotes the 1964 civil rights act disallowing “discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin is prohibited.”
  • HWS: Sexual Liberation Movement

    HWS: Sexual Liberation Movement
    This article talks about the sexual liberation movement on the HWS campus as well as other campuses around the country. The article talks about numerous college students living with members of the opposite sex, as well as the growing movement on campus and the ability of colleges around the country to go along with this new movement.
  • US: Welcome To the White House, Mr. Nixon!

    US: Welcome To the White House, Mr. Nixon!
    Richard Nixon was sworn in as the 37th President of the United States. Nixon was best known for ending the United States involvement in the War in Vietnam as well as his part in the Watergate scandal which led to his impeachment.
  • HWS: Columbia Strike Captured on Film

    HWS: Columbia Strike Captured on Film
    Article published in the Hobart Herald talks about the Columbia University Strike and continued protests in 1968. A film was produced and shown to the Hobart and William Smith Students detailing the precautions and planning of the students at the time. In effect, it haltered functions of Hobart and William Smith along with thoughts on HWS school policies.
  • USA: Redstockings & Abortions

    USA: Redstockings & Abortions
    An “Abortion Speakout” was organized by the radical feminist group Redstockings in New York City. Here, women talked about their experiences with abortion. Five months later on July 7th The Redstocking's Manifesto was published. Here the manifesto identified men as the oppressors and this document outlined the groups chief task to develop female class consciousness by sharing experiences with one another.
  • US: Man on the Moon

    US: Man on the Moon
    On July 20th 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. take the first steps on the moon. This landing signified "man's expression for self-discovery".
  • US: "Peace and Music" at WoodStock

    US: "Peace and Music" at WoodStock
    From August 15th to August 17th, Woodstock, the most famous music festival took place in Bethel, New York. Famous musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Grateful Dead, Joe Cocker, and Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young performed here in front of 500,000 people. This event signified mass freedom and symbolized the power of young people coming together.
  • HWS: Sex at HWS

    HWS: Sex at HWS
    Article published in the Hobart Herald in the form of a letter to the Editor from the “Upper Classes”. The group expresses their concerns involving a young entrepreneur on campus who is selling condoms to HWS students door to door. The writer mentions that druggists in the Geneva area are selling birth control devices at no cost and advises students who are reading the article to seek professional rather than amature products.
  • US: Negative Effects of Birth Control

    US: Negative Effects of Birth Control
    The Food and Drug Administration warns that birth control pills may cause blood clots. This causes a scare amongst women using the contraceptive, questioning their trust in the product and the future of the pill at hand.
  • US: The Black Panther Party

    US: The Black Panther Party
    Black Panther Party membership was at an all time in 1970, with offices in 68 cities. The Black Panther Party evolved into organizing its force into political power.
  • HWS: United Blacks of Hobart

    HWS: United Blacks of Hobart
    United Blacks of Hobart was created in 1969. United against the "White is Right" theory, the courses taught at HWS, and the whiteness of the HWS faculty. This group worked together to attract more black students on campus, more black faculty, and the addition of significant courses. They worked to make the campus more welcoming to the growing population of black students and support the minority groups on campus. Expressing their might and drive to make the campus a more welcoming environment.
  • US: The Break Up of The Beatles

    US: The Break Up of The Beatles
    Regarded as the most influential band in History, The Beatles featuring John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr break up. The Beatles are known for their popular songs that changed the face of pop such as “Hey Jude”, “Strawberry Fields” “Let it be” “Come together” and so on.
  • HWS: The First Black Music Symposium

    HWS: The First Black Music Symposium
    The first symposium on black music ever to be held in the country is presented on Hobart and William Smith campus. Created by HWS professor Nicolas V. D’Angelo, black music was said to be a major influence in American music. Such black music genres included jazz, blues, country, bluegrass, rock, rhythm and blues, soul, ragtime, hip hop and more.
  • US: Troops Sent to Cambodia

    US: Troops Sent to Cambodia
    President Nixon sent the USA troops into Cambodia. His goal? To abolish Vietnamese communist forces. This order sparked strikes and protests across the country.
  • HWS: Stop the War in Vietnam! Sincerely, HWS Students

    HWS: Stop the War in Vietnam! Sincerely, HWS Students
    About 700 Hobart and William smith students marched on Washington while hundreds walked door to door canvassing the Geneva community. Students sent letters and telegrams to Washington, strike banners were hung from the dorms and fraternity houses, the lacrosse team refused to play in their game, and classes throughout the week were excused for the Hobart and William Smith students.
  • HWS: HWS Oppression Committee

    HWS: HWS Oppression Committee
    The Black and Political Oppression Committee set up workshops at Hobart and William Smith Colleges concerning the Black Panther Party. The committee expressed the neglect of domestic social and economic conflicts. The author of the article in the Herald states that defenders of civil rights and human justice are being “systematically repressed by a government that is isolated and insensitive."
  • HWS: Cambodia, a "No Man's Land"

    HWS: Cambodia, a "No Man's Land"
    The author writing to the editor expresses his frustration of the fundamental difference in thinking in the country. Briefly, the author talks about voicing his opinion on campus about the United States position in Cambodia. The author writes to expresses the need to discuss, reflect, and look into the future through conversation whether the opposing person agrees or disagrees.
  • Tommy the Traveler

    Tommy the Traveler
    Tommy the Traveler, an undercover agent posing as a campus radical lead a narcotics raid on Superdorm (Sherill Dorm). Three police cars were damaged along with school damages up up to $8,000. Students were released along with Tommy the Traveler.
  • US: Pentagon papers leaked

    US: Pentagon papers leaked
    Daniel Ellsberg, a government consultant, gained access to some of the classified documents and leaked them to the New York Times in June of 1971. The reports revealed many large scale attacks that the U.S. public were not aware of, causing many U.S. citizens to lose trust in the United States government. The general feeling was that the United States government had misled the public and withheld the truth.
  • HWS: Geneva Women's Liberation supports Homosexual Bill of Rights

    HWS: Geneva Women's Liberation supports Homosexual Bill of Rights
    The Geneva Women’s Liberation Political Group heartily endorses this Bill of Rights for Homosexuals, because we feel that anti-gay prejudice is actually an extreme manifestation of the general sexism of this culture. Both radical feminism and gay liberation are striving to eliminate the gender-distinct roles which males and females are taught to fill. Thus, for example, it proposes that gay people should have a nondiscriminatory place in the system of socially controlled marriages.
  • HWS: Abortions at William Smith

    HWS: Abortions at William Smith
    A writer in the Herald answers the questions where to seek information in relation to an abortion, how to get one, and how much it will cost. He announces the services available on and off campus for women who are curious about the process.
  • HWS: students engage in critical analysis of Vietnam

    HWS: students engage in critical analysis of Vietnam
    Here the students engage in a critical reflection and analysis of the war in Vietnam specifically looking at President Nixon's role in the ongoing settlement agreements.
  • HWS: hosts Peter Yarrow of “Puff the Magic Dragon”

    HWS: hosts Peter Yarrow of “Puff the Magic Dragon”
    Peter Yarrow of “Puff the Magic Dragon” performs at HWS This is to raise funds for the Hobart 6 defense in response to the many protests and riots that have broken out over the US. His songs “This Land is your Land” and other sing song folk type songs show that his goal is to unify the students in peace.
  • HWS: Vietnam Bombing Reaction

    HWS: Vietnam Bombing Reaction
    This article discusses the end of show and tell time at a local middle school. The article talks about a third grade teacher who had a panic attack and was sent to the hospital after many of her students brought in newspaper clippings and articles talking about excessive bombing in Vietnam. The school decided to shut down show and tell until after the Vietnam War.
  • US: Dallas Cowboys win sixth ever Super Bowl

    US: Dallas Cowboys win sixth ever Super Bowl
    The Dallas Cowboys behind head coach Tom Landry win Super Bowl VI
  • HWS: The Feminist Revolution

    HWS: The Feminist Revolution
    This article talks about what would happen in the world if women rose to power. From having more roles in the government, such as women presidents, to having higher pay and more job security. This article talks about how the world would be a better place and how the United States and the rest of the world wouldn’t have nearly as many problems (such as war and violence) than they did during the time period.
  • US: Watergate

    US: Watergate
    June 23rd 1972 the fall of President Richard Nixon started to come into play as video recordings, later known as the “Smoking gun” were found. These tapes, as well as other investigations, ultimately led to the end of Richard Nixon’s presidency and his impeachment.
  • US: Title IX Created

    US: Title IX Created
    On June 23rd 1972, the United states passed Title IX, a law that stated, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded in participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” Title IX was and still is a very major law for women’s rights on college campuses around the country.
  • US: Boeing 737 Crashes

    US: Boeing 737 Crashes
    US Boeing 737 crashes going from Washington to Chicago Killing 43 of the 61 on board the aircraft.
  • US: Apollo 17 Aircraft

    US: Apollo 17 Aircraft
    Apollo 17 aircraft returns to earth, the last NASA's Apollo program.
  • US: Christmas day bombing

    US: Christmas day bombing
    On Christmas day 1972 the United States and President Richard Nixon tried to end the war in Vietnam by bombing the North Vietnam. Nixon and the U.S. Army dropped over twenty thousand tons of explosives on North Vietnam, killing over one thousand Vietnamese.
  • HWS: President Nixon Reaction

    HWS: President Nixon Reaction
    This article, talks about a multitude of different actions Nixon took in order to gain trust from the American people. The Herald reporters discuss how they believe that Nixon was scared that he was losing the American people, which may lead to his impeachment.
  • Citations Link

    Click on the link here to find our citations and places to look for more information for each event! https://timelinecite.art.blog/