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1960's Timeline Project

  • Period: to

    A Nation Facing Challenges

  • France is Defeated

    France is Defeated
    French soliders made thier last stand in Dien Bien Phu. The French hoped that the U.S. would come and save them, Little did they know, Eisenhower had no intent of sending troops over there. With no support from the U.S., the French had to surrender.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This court made decisions about the issue of school segregation. It took a span of two years to hear everyone's arguments. The court conducted test on segregation and found that it harmed the self-image of students. Chief Justice Earl Warren decided that segregation in school was unconstitutional.
  • The Geneva Conference

    The Geneva Conference
    After the French surrendered, there was a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland to work out a peace agreeement and to arrange Indochina's future. At the meeting, agreements were made to cease-fire and vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel, which acted as a buffer to prevent fighting between North and South Vietnam.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The NAACP saw Rosa Parks as an inspiration and they called for a one-day bus boycott. 90% of African Americans stayed off the buses. This boycott was hard on African Americans, but it hurt white businesses more. The boycott went on for a year when the court finally ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
  • Decline of Black Power

    Decline of Black Power
    Hoover created a secret FBI program to keep a watch for groups that were plaguing society. Hoover was concerned with King and the Black Power movement. He was especially concerned with the Black Panthers. By early 1970's, violence lead to the death of many Black Panthers.
  • The Little Rock Crisis

    The Little Rock Crisis
    In Little Rock Arkansas, Governor Orval Faubus was against integrating the highschool. He brought in the national guard to keep African Americans out of the school. For weeks the Little Rock Nine were denied to be let into the school. On September 5th, Eisenhower sent federal troops to protect the Little Rock Nine into the school, and on this date integration took place in Little Rock.
  • Rise of the Counterculture

    Rise of the Counterculture
    The counterculture was a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American Society. These young Americans were known as hippies and they wanted peace and love. They wanted the war to end as well.
  • Sit-in Movement

    Sit-in Movement
    In Greensboro, NC four college students were denied coffee becasue of their race. They decided to sit at the lunch counter until the store closed. Daily sit-ins continued to happen with dedicated and well-behaved students. This protest won important white support.
  • The Freedom Rides

    The Freedom Rides
    CORE decied to draw attention to the order by the Supreme Court that all facilities in bus stations to be open to all races because it was not being followed. CORE conducted freedom rides where African Americans would go on buses and at each stop they would get off and go into white-only bathrooms and lunch counters.
  • Native American Moverment

    Native American Moverment
    A group of 700 Native Americans held a conference in Chicago to oppose the termination policy. There, D'Arcy McNickle, made they Declaration of Indian Purpose. This document stated that Native Americans wanted control over their own lives. This marked the Red Power movement.
  • Kennedy Takes Office

    Kennedy Takes Office
    After one of the closest elections in history, Kennedy won the election by a small margin. He became the youngest president as well as the first Catholic elected president. Kennedy mentioned it was time for changes to be made in his inaugural speech.
  • Kennedy Wants to Explore Space

    Kennedy Wants to Explore Space
    Kennedy wanted to make a space program to restore American's world prestige from the Cold War. Kennedy asked congress to fund an unmanned exploration of space. He also wanted to land a man on the moon before 1970.
  • The Berlin Crisis

    The Berlin Crisis
    Khrushchev took Kennedy's failure to invade Cuba as a weakness of the United States. Khrushchev's communist forces closed the crossing point between East and West Berlin. He set up wire fencing, later replaced with a concrete wall. This wall seperated families, neighborhoods, and streets.
  • Religous Freedom

    Religous Freedom
    In a court case the Warren Court defined the religion guarentees of the first amendment. In Engel v. Vital, the justices banned prayers and bible readings in public schools. The Supreme Court ruled that this violated the First Amendment that the government would not make the nation's "offical" religion.
  • The 24th Amendment is Passed

    The 24th Amendment is Passed
    The 24th Amendment was passed by Congress to the Constitution. This amendment banned states from taxing people to vote. This amendment affected African Americans the most because now they didn't have to pay to vote.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis
    On this date it was found by U-2 planes that the Soviet Union were infact creating missiles. Kennedy created a group of advisers to help he make a decison on this crisis. Kennedy decided to go with a blockade but was prepared to fight in needed. This incident was the closest American had come to a nuclear war.
  • The March on Washington

    The March on Washington
    The march on Washington was for jobs and freedom. It was the largest Civil Right movement with more than 200,000 people in the National Mall. There, Martin Luther King Jr. delievered his "I Have a Dream" speech.
  • Kenndey's Assassination

    Kenndey's Assassination
    Kennedy was in an open roof car in Dallas traveling to where he was to make a speech. The first lady was by his side as the crowd cheered for him. Shots rang out from the 6th floor of the schoolbook despository building and Kennedy was killed. Kennedy's death rocked the nation.
  • Johnson Becomes President

    Johnson Becomes President
    President Kennedy was assassinated on this date. On the same day Johnson was sworn into presidency on Airforce one.
  • The War on Poverty

    The War on Poverty
    At the union address Johnson stated "unconditional war on poverty" in American. To launch the War on Poverty congress passed the Economic opportunity Act. This funded antipoverty programs. There were programs that provided education, work opportunities , and more.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    In Johnson's commencenment address he used the phrase "great society," which would be known as domestic programs to help Americans. The programs were ment to promote a better life for Americans no matter of their status.
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    Once the 24th Amendment was passed college students were called to spend their summers in Mississippi registrating African Amercians to vote. Hundreds of volunteers went to Ohio to be trained for the Project Freedom Summer. This project would educate children and register voters.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    The Tonkin Gulf Resolution was approved by Congress on August 7th. This allowed Johnson to take "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States." This allowed Johnson to expand war.
  • Rising Student Activism

    Rising Student Activism
    Jack Weinberg set up a table in a banned are to collect money for CORE on a college campus. When the police arrested him and put him in a cop car. Hundreds of students surrounded the sare so the police couldn't take Jack. The students stood there for 32 hours not allowing the cop car to move. In the end the protest ended with no violence but some organizers wer punished.
  • The Antiwar Movement

    The Antiwar Movement
    Opposition to the war grew and so did antiwar movements. Many movements took place on college campuses. Students protested the draft and ROTC. The most vocal group was SDS who led the first national anitwar demonstration at the Capitol in Washington, D.C.
  • The Selma March

    The Selma March
    Six hundred African Americans began a 54-mile march to Montgomery. On their way out of the city, police fired tear gas at them and attacked them with clubs abd chains. The march was paused for a short time. After recieving federal protection, the march continued on and reached Montgomery on March 25th.
  • The Air War

    The Air War
    The first major U.S. military activity in Vietnam was Operation Rolling Thunder. This was a bombing campaign over North Vietnam. Johnson wanted to weaken the enemy's ability to fight. He also ordered to bomb anything that would be useful to the enemy in the war efforts.
  • The Draft

    The Draft
    As American forces in Vietnam increased, the government depended on the draft for soliders. Men would enrool in college so they would not have to serve. This ment that poor men would serve because they could not afford college. A high percentage of soliders in combat were African Americans because they were enlisted.
  • Chicano Movement

    Chicano Movement
    The Chincanos were created when Mexican Americans began to have cultural nationalism. The Chicano's name showed their ethnic pride and commitment to political activism. The leaders in this movement were Reies Lopez Tijerina, Rodolfo Gonzales, and Jose Angel Gutierrez.
  • The Crusade for Justice

    The Crusade for Justice
    Gonzales founded the Crusade for Justice. This group promoted Mexican American nationalism. It operated out of an old church providing legal aid, cultural awareness, a Spanish newspaper, and other community services.
  • Black Panther Party

    Black Panther Party
    Newton and Seale founded the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California. They Black Panthers wanted to use violence for African American liberation. They carried guns and monitored African American neighborhoods.
  • MAYO

    A group of college students in San Antonio formed the Mexican American Youth Organization. The founder was Jose Angel Gutlerrez. MAYO was created to achieve economic independence for Mexican Americans and have control over education for Hispanic children.
  • Summer of Love

    Summer of Love
    The height of the hippie movement was in San Francisco in the summer of 1967. The pippies proclaimed the coming of a blissful new age.The freedom that the hippies wanted lead to problems. Many overdosed on drugs, they had a lack of rules that lead to conflicts, and mass murders were committed.
  • Khe Sanh

    Khe Sanh
    The U.S. suspected an assault because there was an increase of traffic on the Ho Chi Minh trail. NVA and Vietcong struck the U.S. base in Khe Sanh. After the 77-day siege ended, the Americans still had Khe Sanh.
  • The Tet Offensive

    The Tet Offensive
    The Tet, is the Vietnamese New Year. Usually fighting stopped on this day but the Vietcong took advantage of this holiday to strike against the Americans. 84,000 communists attacked 12 U.S. bases and 100 cities across South Vietnam.
  • Assassination of King

    Assassination of King
    King went to Memphis to help African American sanitation workers who were on strike. King was standing on his balcony at his motel when he was shot by James Earl Ray. There was a huge violent reaction to his death.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    A couple weeks after Martin Luther King Jr.'s death, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968. This act is also known as the Fair Housing Act. This law banned discrimination in the sales of houses.
  • Poor People's Campaign

    Poor People's Campaign
    Abernathy took over King's leadership position inhis campaign after King was shot. This campaign was to show the nation of the economic plight of the poor people. It turned out to be a disaster. Without King's ecperience, the campaign failed to show the protester's demands.
  • Black Power

    Black Power
    At the Summer Olympics, Tommie Smith and John Carlos gave the Black Power a salute when they recieved their medals. This was seen as threatening because the Black Power used violence.
  • The Election of 1968

    The Election of 1968
    Johnson withdrew from the election in 1968. This allowed Humphrey to join they race. The election was Nixon v. Humphrey. In the end Nixon recieved 301 electoral votes to Humphrey's 191, Nixon's victory in the electoral college gave him a mandate.
  • Days of Rage

    Days of Rage
    A group called the Weathermen decided that peaceful protests were not good enough and turned to violence to get their point across. The Weathermen carried out the Day of Rage, which was suppose to shut down Chicago. In the end six Wwathermen were shot and more were arrested.
  • Campus Violence

    Campus Violence
    An antiwar demonstration took place at Kent State University. The demonstrators set fire to the ROTC building. Ohio's government sent the National Guard to control farther demonstrations.
  • Peace Agreement

    Peace Agreement
    Talk about peace was being stalled between Vietnam and the U.S. Nixon ordered around-the-clock bombing in North Vietnamese to sway them to make a peace treaty, but this failed. The conditions that were set for peace was to remove all U.S. troops, North Vietnam could leave troops in South Vietnam and resume war. Lastly there were no provisions for POWs or MIAs.
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    The Supreme Court made the decision to ban abortions in Roe v. Wade. Supporters argued that women shouldn't have equal rights until they could control when to have kids. Many people opposed this decision because of religious or moral beliefs.
  • The Equal Rights Amendment

    The Equal Rights Amendment
    The National Organization for Women campaigned for the Equal Rights Amendment. This amendment would give equal treatment to men and women in everything. Before the ERA could take effect it had to be ratified by 38 states. Some people thought the ERA was a threat to traditonal family life.